Interesting and useful article, with the attribution of paintings by Russian avant-garde (EA)
V. Kireev, SA Pisarev
Studying technological features paintings of the past with nearly a century, made an invaluable contribution to the study of history painting. To date, paintings by old masters studied from this aspect quite well. Therefore, their attribution and expertise, if not always, it is often preceded by a technology research, including chemical analysis of materials. The chemical composition of materials to determine the chronological framework of the painting: it is impossible to create a masterpiece of the XVII century. pigments, first obtained in the XVIII century. as well as the artist could not use paints, made in the XIX century., being a contemporary of the XVIII century.
But this is the case with works of masters of the old school.
A completely different situation when the object of study - painting beginning of XX century. The bright and original works of artists - representatives of the direction of Russian avant-garde today is the object of attention. Paintings by these artists are exhibited at various exhibitions of their work - the subject of art history research, they are restored, and are subject to sale, and as everyone knows, the cost of these works is very high. The latter led to the fact that the art market flooded with huge number of fakes, some of which are masterfully executed.
This, in turn, causes difficulty in their attribution and examination methods of art criticism the analysis. Therefore, the study of material constituents Russian avant-garde artist is able to present additional information which may shed light on the history of their creation, to help in unraveling the fundamental question of attribution and expert scrutiny - the establishment of the artwork. Process data, nor in any way substitute for analysis of art criticism, provide a basis for further search, narrowing its borders. Just as the painting is inconceivable without the knowledge of the technology of painting, and authentication of art can not be based on a study of all of its material constituents.
[SPOILER] First, even the question of the possibility of using data on the material of this time for attribution or examination aroused skepticism among the researchers. This is explained by the fact that the colorful palette of preceding centuries almost completely changed in the XIX century. - Century of rapid development of chemical industry. But the same range of artistic materials continues to be made in the next, XX century, and now also in the XXI. It seemed logical to assume that the composition of the pigments used in order to distinguish the painting of XIX century. from the pattern of XX can not. This is a priori bias - one of the reasons why the technology art school of Russian avant-garde to the present moment, at least in our country, not systematically studied.
Indeed, most often made in the XIX century. pigments continued to be made and in XX, and some continue to be made now. But there are certain pigments that appear only in the XX century. This is - red cadmium, first produced in 1905 , titanium dioxide - 1916-1918. in a mixture with other inert fillers, and in pure form - in 1923, in Russia they began producing in 1930. , blue and green phthalocyanine pigments are synthesized in 1935-1936. .
Currently, a number of pigments replaced by cheaper and less toxic compounds. Thus, significantly decreased production of white, yellow and red pigments based on lead. More and more is available various organic pigments, and the mineral - yellow and red range, as before, are cadmium compounds.
At the same time to obtain reliable information about how and what materials are written works by artists of Russian avant-garde, can only be referring to the original works.
Altogether some 70 works by artists such as Kandinsky, Malevich, Popova, Udaltsova, Rozanova, Exter, Larionov, Goncharova, Shterenberg, Kliun, Morgunov, Strezheminsky, Shaposhnikov, Ender, Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Falk, dated 1908-1921 years.
And although the number of these works are not so great as to make far-reaching conclusions, yet the study revealed some peculiarities in the use of pictorial material.
Soils. Studies had shown, the picture painted as a factory-primed canvas, and on canvas, primed by hand. The common thread of all the soils studied group - is white.
As fillers soils identified lead, zinc oxide, chalk, gypsum. In addition to the monolayer, artists have used two-layer soils, as well as mixtures of two components.
Very often the work of claiming authorship of the Russian avant-garde artists, and are not, contain an ingredient soil recrystallized calcite, that is the product obtained by processing the chalk or limestone. Recrystallized calcite, also known as lime whitewash, and used in wall paintings as a primer and as a white pigment, in the grounds of genuine works of art studied was not found.
In addition to the lime whitewash counterfeiters also use a mixture of titanium and white lead.
Pigments. Consider the three color groups of pigments, whose identification may significantly affect the results of an examination.
White pigments. As the white pigments, the most common in the studied group are zinc and lead oxide. In works
issued for the avant-garde, we have identified white lead, which at the same time different from the original palette of white lead: modern white lead is a large single crystals in the form of tetrahedrons and other geometric shapes.
In the 70 studied the paintings created before 1921 are not detected titanium dioxide or mixed with inert fillers, either in pure form. Very often in paintings, falsify Russian avant-garde, we find titanium dioxide, which are present either in pure form or blended with zinc oxide or as a triple composition: zinc, barite and titanium dioxide.
Blue pigments. In the studied group of original paintings often used artificial ultramarine, Prussian blue and cobalt blue. All these pigments are produced now and can be used in the forgery, but most often occurs in non-genuine paintings phthalocyanine blue pigment, first synthesized in 1935
Often, when studying patterns of unknown origin found a blue pigment, the beginning of use in painting which has no information and no data on how, when he was first received. This is a cobalt spectral - this is the commercial name of pigment, which is the composition of silicate of cobalt and zinc. In 1971, the chief technologist Dulevo porcelain factory Alevtina Ivanovna Glebychevoy was defended thesis on technology of a number of pigments villemitovoy group that applies the specified connection. It is known that the pigments produced in Dulyovo for porcelain painting sold to factories for the production of decorative paints. In the study of original paintings by Russian avant-garde artists of the pigment was not found. The catalog company Lefranc in 1930  of this pigment composition is also absent. Analysis of the same materials of paintings, questionable on several grounds, not just bringing to light the presence of the cobalt spectrum.
Green pigments. Presented in the original papers studied emerald green and green shveynfurtskoy; in one paper was found green cobalt. Emerald green continues to be made today. Shveynfurtskaya green because of its toxicity is no longer produced in the mid 1920's., On other sources - it continued to be made in Europe and the United States until 1960., In the early 1980's. it continued to produce as an insecticide.
For fakes often use a phthalocyanine green, phthalocyanine blue, or a mixture of pigment with a yellow pigment.
Despite the fact that the number of original works by artists studied Russian avant-garde is sufficiently representative, the study of pigments in 70 scenes can make some conclusions.
1. A set of identified pigments rather uniform for all artists. An analysis of the specific author of pigments shows that the artist, as a rule, remains true once selected pigments in the transfer of a color. It should be noted that Kandinsky's palette is somewhat different from a palette of other artists. Perhaps this is due to his habit of working paints manufactured in Germany.
2. Also revealed a combination of pigments, characteristic of the work specified period. For example, in the paintings of Kandinsky 1916-1917 years., Discovered a red organic pigment and red lead, and in earlier works (1909) - Red
organic pigment and cinnabar, as in the paintings discovered in 1909 Naples yellow, which is absent in the paintings 1916-1917 years.
3. Not found materials, the beginning of industrial production, which does not correspond to the time of writing patterns, ie, titanium dioxide and phthalocyanine pigments.
4. All studied works painted factory colors. Opinion on the possibility of creating new pigments because of the nature of creative experimentation Russian avant-garde artists not confirmed in the study of this group of reference works. This is - a myth.
Environment prevailing in the art idea that artists can avail themselves to the synthesis of some pigments, are without basis in reality. In particular, you can hear that phthalocyanine pigments could be obtained at home. Such a representation is a complete illusion based on ignorance on complex processes of organic synthesis, which requires special equipment and special conditions - pressure, high and low temperatures, the use of corrosive agents, ie, all that is impossible to create otherwise, except as laboratory or factories, conditions.
Binders. For the period covering the end of the XIX and XX in the whole., Characterized by the use of both traditional oil binder, and various composite compositions based on oil. During the identification of oil paintings in colorful layers researchers can determine these parameters it is directly related to the time of painting.
First, the degree of polymerization, or the degree of aged oil. Roughly based on the chemical properties of the oil film can be divided into three age-gradation of oil binder - whether fresh layer of paint, ie, deposited about a year or two ago, then - 30-50 years, the latest figure - 100 years. Next, determine the age of oil would not be possible.
Secondly, the chemical analysis of paints containing oil, objectively demonstrates, how the aging process of oil bonds: a natural way, over time, or it was accelerated, adulterated, ie, artificial.
Third, to dilute oil paints traditionally used organic solvents or resin varnishes on organic solvents or oil. Do so, as a rule, on the palette, and the tar content in different paint layers was different, as confirmed by chemical analysis.
In the second half of XX century. composition of the oil binder radically changed - in the production of paints by adding considerable amounts of resin. For today's oil paints characterized the prevailing content of the resin in relation to oil, which is also quite unusual for oil paints the first decades of XX century. and, consequently, is also indicative of the fact of the examination. Since the second half of XX century in artistic practice firmly established diluents containing artificial polymer materials.
Alkyd polymers were invented in 1930, acrylic polymers - in 1935, vinyl - in 1937, these polymers were used initially in the form of solutions in organic solvents, and since 1949 in the form of aqueous dispersions. Introduction in manufacture of decorative paints happened later. In domestic practice, it falls at the end of 1950 - early 1960.
In addition to the traditional techniques of oil painting, there were variations on its basis. Thus, the desire to make an oil painting it does not have a matte surface has identified the introduction of lipstick, consisting of resin, usually dammar, and wax. Lipstick mingled with oil paints on the palette, and its amount allowed to reach different degrees of mat painting. Different ratio of these additives in the paint layers can also be installed analytically. Such a composition tie says that it is not industrial paints. They have been used since the XIX century.
Important information concerning the dating of the paintings, can give such a resin as dammar. Open for European artists in the middle of the XIX century, dammar firmly part of the oil paints in the second half of XX century. As evidenced by studies of painting. Dammarie in colorful layers of ten years ago is different than dammar in colorful layers of newly written works. As shown by experimental studies, three years later in oil paint containing dammar, appears whitish coating. The absence of such a raid shows slight age of the paint layer.
Since the XIX century. there are various versions of tempera painting, imitating the brilliant surface of oil paints. In the last quarter of XIX century. Some artists have tried to create new kinds of tempera. This technique has several advantages compared to oil: tempera colors do not darken, instantly dry, but the impression of oil, and if used as a diluent water, you can get the effect of tempera painting. Experiments on modification of the old tempera been extremely successful, resulting in several new species of. Due to the different set of organic components, and hence different mechanisms of aging, a colorful layer of such products has a different craquelure or do not have it at all. Another type of tempera was added to oil paints in the form of wax emulsion in water. It was also a way to make oil painting uncharacteristic for her matte surface. However, new and old wax-oil tempera can be distinguished from one another: for the old tempera characterized by intermittent mixing ratio of binder in the various layers of paint, for a new same temperature, on the contrary, this ratio is constant.
Production of various types of tempera, casein, except oil, lasted until the mid 1940's. Until they gradually have not replaced the paint on a variety of polymeric binders, the date of production which have already been identified.
Study of 15 original paintings 1908-1921 years. from the collections of provincial museums showed the following: soils mainly oil, less often - emulsion, only one case detected emulsion primer with the addition of starch. In the paint on the canvas has been detected only in which of the need to add synthetic varnish. Among the studied pictures new temperature (oil, resin, gum) found only in one picture L. Popova (collage - Still № 62, x., 1915, Nizhny Novgorod).
In practice, a study binder, in some cases may be decisive in determining the time of creation and the authenticity of works of art.
Defining only the composition of soil, pigment or binder, as a rule, does not give the desired result.
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Interesting article on the attribution, I would recommend. (EA)
Puzzles pastels V.E.Borisova-Musatov.
EN Belonovich, I. Proletkin. Saratov State Art Museum named after AN Radishcheva.
The artist VE Borisov-Musatov bed occupies a special place. By pastels VE Borisov-Musatov addressed before the end of his life. Line up this series of works by the artist, to specify the time and circumstances of their creation - all the same, that lay a complex mosaic. In fact, the artists, not always signing and dating their own work, unwittingly create for future research these puzzles. And the clue to, the nomination based versions dating works depicted on them places and people, in something akin to detective fiction with an essential element of time travel.
XXI century gave us a wonderful tool for finding relevant information - the Internet. This search does not replace or supersede the traditional meticulous work in museum collections and research archives, but the results, sometimes give rise to interesting research topics and scientific contacts. (1)
In late 2005 the site was found www.artsalon.ru
unknown to us hitherto image works VE Borisov-Musatov, which we are sincerely rejoiced, expressing different ideas and assumptions. After six months on the site of the famous Sotheby's work has been put up for sale with more detailed information about her, but her image is translated was much larger. The canvas was acquired directly from the artist in 1904, B. Napravnik, the son of Russian conductor and composer Edward Napravnik, and since then remained in the family collection. (2)
from the collection of Chuvash State Art Museum, where the young woman depicted on a background of pastel VE http://www.culture21.ru/News.aspx?orgid=385&id=96447
The painting entered the museum in 1979, and its main mystery was caught in her persona, the original attribution of which turned out to be incorrect. On the question of identification, shown in the portrait of the museum staff returned in 2003, and largely re-passed the necessary research path. During his version was born, that is a portrait of Mary Georgiyevna Napravnik, the wife of one of the sons of the composer Vladimir. This version has become final, and complete attribution after they became aware of the auction Sotheby's catalog.
It is very important evidence about ownership family pictures Napravnik brings us the nature of a source of well-known monograph of NN Borisov-Musatov. She has all the best features of the artist: the harmony of man and nature, lyrical mood, total lack of fuss. The very stylistic system works provides food for the production of various research questions. Bed is dated 1903. But how do we know? Signed by the author himself, or whether this kind of long an established dating work? If the artist himself signed the work, then we are faced with the problem more accurately determine the time and place of its establishment in the overall number of works by the artist, written in 1903. Nostalgia Is it on the Saratov Zubrilovka estate, home Saratov sketch before the upcoming trip in the summer of 1903 in the town Khvalynsk or just the author's imagination, nothing or anything not related? But if the author is not dating? Then the question of time and place for the creation of this work becomes even more urgent.
Comparison of images from other works of the artist can speculate that the bed could be written later - in the next 1904. In mid-summer 1904 Borisov-Musatov stayed with the family estate near Moscow Vvedenskoe. At the same time there were about artistic company close VE Borisov-Musatov. For descriptions of Vedenskiy known that from the main manor house began a long descent to the river, and we can assume that its bank two ladies strolling in the hour of sunset. And to the river from a minimum of 200-300 meters. Study the terrain is still not given us a definitive yes, soon made the move in our search for more. And, of course, the bright saturated fruitful days spent by the artist in Vvedensky, do not exhaust all the impressions of 1904.
1904 Musatov and his wife Elena Alexandrova met in the town of Podolsk, where the artist moved from Saratov. Podmoskovnie land rich in beautiful park-like ensembles, and not far from Podolsk in the river is Pakhra estate Ivanovo, in which the artist and his companions repeatedly visited. It should be noted that researchers have the artist's life, for whatever reasons, did not notice those visits, probably also because among Musatovskogo heritage, works created in the Ivanovo also escaped the attention of researchers.
The luxurious palace ensemble estate Ivanovskoe now there are two museums: the Museum of the federal vocational education and local lore. Again, finding: on the Internet site of the museum vocational training in the materials on the history of the manor Ivanovskoe we found one more unknown to us Musatovsky sketch. Museum staff kindly told us that their exposure is picture the scene, made from the negative, which is stored in the collections of the Tretyakov Gallery. But, unfortunately, by whom and under what circumstances is unknown. A characteristic common sign in both works - the presence of the stone grotto. Very similar to the path along the river, passing through the natural slope of a river. Even lower and closer to the water stretching band of dense shrubs and trees. These two works represent almost mirror each other. What can you suggest in this regard? Not if the estate Ivanovo region is depicted in these works?
As in terms of the estate, and at a very detailed space images shows that the manor house is located quite close to the river Pakhra. Along the river can be traced not a wide road. It is possible that in the planning of the architectural ensemble was originally based on the principle of symmetry and the grotto, which is well captured in pastels, of course entered in relief of a steep bank. This cave could be the spring, that is co-opted yield of groundwater.
Finally, we once again see that the true work of art is not only a considerable financial value, but the historical value, bringing to us interesting evidence of a bygone era.
In conclusion I'd like to add that the era of the Internet in many ways - time to gather stones. Transparency of information allows you to connect the threads, by force of circumstances to explode a hundred and more years ago.
New York. But this is how we think, be quite different internet history.
This article is already in the section, duplicated here .. there is a lot of interesting information on the creativity of a remarkable artist. (EA)
On the topic interesting (EA): V.E.Borisov-Musatov World Library Network http://www.sgu.ru/ogis/bogo/mat11/mat11-1.html
1. Eleventh Annual Conference ADIT, Saratov, 2007, Abstracts.