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Старый 17.09.2010, 08:16 Язык оригинала: Русский       #1
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По умолчанию Examination of works of Russian and foreign painting and graphics XVI-XX centuries.

On methods of studying the works of art and the classification of secondary works in the department of scientific expertise
AR Kiseleva (Senior Research Officer GRC them. Igor Grabar).

The basis of the expert is to conduct a comprehensive iconographic, stylistic, technical and technological expertise of Russian and foreign painting and graphics XVI-XX centuries.
During the existence of his co-workers developed a method for comprehensive analysis of the works, collections of standards, as the replenishment of the experts whose conclusions about individual handwriting traits of artists and is constantly refined technological features that are characteristic for individual schools of painting from different periods.
To date, assembled an extensive bank of reference data, including the collection:
- Samples of canvas and paper;
- Macro texture painting;
- Microsamples of soil and layers of paint;
- Documentary photographs in the visible, infrared, ultraviolet and X-ray spectra of radiation;
- Descriptions of the results of iconographic and stylistic analysis, as well as visual and microscopic observations of technical and technological characteristics of products.
These data form the basis for a comparative analysis of works of art.
The main tasks of scientific expertise include:
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- The question of authorship (the establishment, confirmation or rejection of authorship);
- Dating works;
- Definition of school of painting;
- Determination of the iconography of the work;
- The question of the originality or derivative works;
- Delineation of the type of the secondary (copy, author or co-authorship repetition, belonging to the workshop, a circle, school, or follower of the wizard, imitation, forgery, pastiche);
- Determination of the state of preservation;
- Determination of the artistic level of the work.
Iconographic (genre-plot) and stylistic (composition, of color, black and white, linear-plastic and so forth) analysis suggests the authorship, creation time, a school of painting.
For the final tasks required technological expertise arguments.

The main technical and technological research include:

 I. Microscopic analysis.
II. Research in the UV radiation.
III. Research in IR radiation.
IV. X-ray analysis.
V. Analysis of texture painting surface.
VI. Analysis of the chemical composition of the painting materials.

Features of these types of studies: I. Minute analysis

One of the most informative examination of works of art you can:
- More accurately determine the condition of the product;
- To conclude that the method of application signature;
-Assume the approximate dating of the work on the picturesque materials, technical characteristics causing soil and the construction of the paint layer;
- Set the technological features of originality, or derivative works;
- To address the question of authorship to correlate the results of microscopic research work with the bank of reference data on the technology of paintings of the artist intended.

1. Microscopic analysis allows us to identify as precisely as possible the degree of restoration interventions, in particular, recognize the old toning and records that are not detected in the UV rays because of the varnish layers. Only in the study under a microscope you can see the restoration of toning and records differ from the author of the layer on the composition of pigments, degree of transparency and the relief of occurrence, but it almost caught up with him in the transparency are close in color and sometimes have already shared with him craquelure. Their X-ray density often does not provide the contrast, therefore, to identify them on the radiograph as difficult as in the UV rays.

2. Investigation under the microscope to determine method of fixing the signature, since only under high magnification one can see subtle nuances of its occurrence and determine whether it was written simultaneously with a colorful layer or made later on craquelure, dirt, abrasions, restoration.
Even without the author's signature can be so long, partially acquire craquelure, shared with the author's paintings.
The method for applying the signature is most important, as the mark of an autograph can skillfully faked. The task of identifying the signature is greatly simplified if it is made: a) raw, b) rare pigment layer, c) the same paste, which paint a picture.

3. Microscopic examination allows the estimated date the picture on the basis of an analysis of its structure, pigment composition and methods of construction painting. Knowledge of the canvas, soil, composition, kneading and grinding of pigments, as well as the range of application-specific painting materials and techniques for building layers of paint give the opportunity to put the supposed dating. The most objective conclusion about the time of creation of the work being done in conjunction with the results of iconographic, stylistic and chemical analysis.
4. Microscopic analysis helps to establish a secondary works, technological feature which in some cases may be a lack podmalevka.
5. In addressing the question of authorship is taken into account the full range of research, in which microscopic analysis plays an important role. The study of soil composition and ratio of pigments, the sequencing of construction of fine detail (for example, the sequence of completion of elements of the person, clothing or accessories, etc.), especially the construction of layers of paint gives an idea of painting materials and techniques for a specific author. A detailed engineering study patterns enables comparison with the general features of time given to the characteristics peculiar to the individual style of the artist.

It is very important that the microscopic analysis is the express method of technological expertise, which results in conjunction with the iconographic and stylistic analysis can either directly address the question of the establishment, school of painting and original paintings, or, in dealing with the authorship and the difficulty in dating, further outlook studies.

II. Research in the UV radiation

UV rays, acting on now, let us see any integral glow paint, paint layer and ground, or each component in the open areas of ground and paint layer, which enables:
- Get some information about the state of conservation works (loss and restoration intervention);
- Identify extinguished inscriptions and signatures made gallic ink, mercury and iron-containing pigment;
- Identify some dating pigments (eg zinc oxide);
- Obtain information about the depth of the signature (under the varnish, lacquer between layers, on top of paint, on the loss, the restoration).

The results verified the results of microscope analysis, as defined in the UV rays of the pigments - the results of the analysis of the chemical composition of samples.
The main qualitative characteristics of the visible luminescence under UV irradiation are brightness, color, density, uniformity of the emission surface of the painting, as well as the presence of dark areas, indicating the existing restoration, pollution or the lack of lacquer film.

If necessary photo-painting under ultraviolet irradiation.

III. Research in the IR radiation

The study is carried out using an electron-optical converter, transforming the IR image in the visible, allowing:
- See the underlying painting (compositional changes or correspondence);
- Recognize a colorful layer of preparatory drawing and large-scale grid, if available;
- To reveal the inscription and signature, caused by carbon materials;
- Identify extinguished inscriptions and signatures;
- To determine surface and deep restoration intervention.
For the infrared rays are transparent varnish, contamination, thin layers of painting. In the heat rays revealed a well-soot, charcoal, pencil, ink and other carbonaceous materials.
The most important information can be obtained in the study of the preparatory drawing, which is a hidden technological copyright sign. Drawing free, with corrections and compositional changes, as a rule, evidence of originality of work. Figure hard, with the depiction of light and shade boundaries and contours most points in the secondary pattern. In some cases the presence of a large-scale grid can also point to the secondary works.
Identifying individual characteristics of a specific pattern masters and their comparison with the reference number - one of the essential tools expertise in dealing with the issue of inventorship.

IV. X-ray analysis
The study enables:

- To determine the condition of the product (the loss, restoration intervention, signs of re-based);
- See the underlying image, as well as edits and changes the composition;
- Identify some beautiful material;
- See the individual copyright application methods of soil (in some cases), construction of the paint layer and the nature of the stroke in the modeling of forms.

In the analysis of X-ray principal qualitative characteristics are readable image, the degree of contrast of black and white building, detection and shape of individual strokes.
Readability image due to the peculiarities of the basis, the composition of the soil and colorful pastes, thickness and quantity of ground and paint layers, the modeling techniques and forms of the type used brushes, as well as the presence of restoration interventions. X-ray analysis plays an important role in deciding the time of creating the painting, school of painting and works of authorship.

V. Analysis of texture painting surface

Research carried out visually by caring, under the microscope and allows you to:
- Obtain information about the state of preservation;
- Identify the individual handwriting characteristics of the author and general symptoms characteristic of the artists a certain time and schools;
- To see the techniques and the sequence of building painted surface;
- Obtain information about art materials and techniques of painting.

Macro texture painting and radiographs provide important information about individual handwriting techniques the author.
Important quality parameters in the analysis of surface texture are the basis of the ratio, soil, paint and varnish layers, the techniques of building painting, body paint, the configuration of the stroke, type craquelure, features art materials, etc.

Interpreting the results of the analysis fakturopostroeniya helps resolve the question of authorship, authenticity, since the establishment of a work, school of painting.

VI. Analysis of the chemical composition of the painting materials

Results of chemical analysis:
- Have information on the creation of the work;
- Contain some information about individual techniques of the artist and used by a scenic materials.
Data obtained in the process of integrated assessment, compared with the reference material, and then to draw definitive conclusions about authorship, creation time, the school of painting, etc.
One important issue is the examination of the classification of works. They may be original or secondary, which in turn are subdivided into several types. Certain types of secondary works contain similar stylistic and technological features, and therefore their distinction in some cases is a rather difficult task. This scheme classifies the secondary works and indicates the types (arrows in opposite directions), representing some difficulty in distinguishing. (This scheme is drawn from studies of sufficiently large number of secondary Dutch and Flemish paintings XVII-XIX centuries.)

Secondary works are divided into copies, author repetition, repetition and imitation, joint authorship, which include simulation, styling, studio work, school, circle, a follower of the wizard and forgery. Fakes with a signature, are unintentional and intentional, and divided into three types (see diagram): a) style, b) stylistic and technological (the XIX century), c) stylistic and technological imitation signs of aging and /or restoration (approximately from mid-XIX century). The picture that has no signature, can be attributed to fraud in the case when it was created, along with the style has been imitated by technology known master and /or simulate symptoms of aging and restoration. Types of fraud, lining up at the time of creation, the differences are related to the level of knowledge in the history of painting techniques.

Despite the fact that accurate and complete definition of the types of secondary works to be difficult, since even the original works may be mimicking nature, we formulate some of them.

Imitation. (The most typical of the XVIII century) painting, written in imitation of some models, incorporating elements of copying and compiling, interpreted in accordance with the aesthetics of his time, created the technology of his time and usually has a signature.

Pastiche. (The most typical of the XIX century) works made by the technology of its time, usually without the use of elements of the copy or compilation, is a retrospective embodiment of the theme (motive), taken from the past and transformed into a new image-plastic model, and in some cases imitation of the old masters.

Unintentional forgery

Originally unsigned picture by any artist, for similar iconographic and stylistic characteristics with time to be a painting of another (usually larger), the artist and in some cases, signed his name.
This type of paintings can be classified as an original work, and imitation, style, and a copy of a work shop, school, circle, a follower of a master. To gain a picture of their true status false signature should be removed.

Intentional falsification

The painting, created in the style of the author counterfeited, often with an imitation of painting technology and the use of similar composition ink paste, sometimes with imitation signs of aging and restoration, as a rule, which has a signature, a modern pigment layer.

Copies of the author and repetition, in our opinion, in special formulations do not need.
Differentiation patterns on the basis of originality and the secondary and the definition of type is secondary, as all the other tasks of scientific expertise, are solved with the help of technical and technological, historical and art history studies, which represent a reliable research method.

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Anna Kiseleva Rudolfovna -
Head of Department examination, leading researcher GRC them. Igor Grabar. Specializes in the XVIII century Russian and Western European paintings.
Member of Russian and international conferences (the Louvre, Leiden University).
He has over twenty publications on assessment, attribution and technological research methods.
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Старый 17.09.2010, 09:08 Язык оригинала: Русский       #2
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They've earned after a fire? Or is it a memory?

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Старый 17.09.2010, 11:04 Язык оригинала: Русский       #3
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Старый 17.09.2010, 13:22 Язык оригинала: Русский       #4
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List of certified experts and specialists.

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Старый 17.09.2010, 14:32 Язык оригинала: Русский       #5
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The list of experts is formed on the basis of analysis of expert opinions on cultural values, issued in recent years, as well as the results of a survey conducted among the biggest collectors of Russian and Western European art. As the author writes in the preface, the publication is not an exhaustive study of the issue and was informative. In his view, the most authoritative experts, who should be trusted to include the total of 24 experts, 11 of them specialize in Russian art, the most controversial sector of the Russian antiques market, which in recent years been associated not a scandal. In most all experts - the museum workers. Three of them are also included in the list of experts accredited by the Confederation of antiquarians and art dealers.
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Friends who read the book? Write a few words ...
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Старый 18.09.2010, 12:24 Язык оригинала: Русский       #6
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(Office for the Central Federal District, Moscow).
It is strange that the list of 282 experts, not fully staff the department examination Gos. Research Institute for the restoration, as if they do not exist. To articles on the article. Europe (Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands) and USA (Institute of Modern Russian Culture), with great respect relating to the opinion of Julian Khalturina of Russian Avant-garde of the first half of the 20 th century and is often invited him for collaborative research.

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По умолчанию Petr Konchalovsky Foundation - examination of works ..

In Moscow there is a Foundation for the Preservation of cultural heritage of the artist Pyotr Konchalovsky. The founders of the fund are its numerous successors.
President of the founders Andrew S. Konchalovsky. The increased in recent years, great interest in the creation of the famous wizard and has identified priority problems whose solution will set up the fund. To promote creativity Konchalovsky will be exhibitions, seminars and conferences.
Last year, one of the earliest works of the master was sold at Sotheby's for an unprecedented amount - 1.5 million dollars. The interest of collectors for his work generated, unfortunately, the flow of fakes. Therefore, the Fund organized a Expert advice.
His task will be examination of works Konchalovsky. In this Expert Council includes leading scholar Peter Petrovich. Expert advice is headed Lidia Ivanovna Iovleva - First Deputy General Director of the Tretyakov Gallery. It also included research experts with years of experience Irina Gerashchenko, Tatiana Ermakova Natalia Avtonomov. In order to preserve the heritage and scientific research Konchalovsky will seek to create its catalog, is reasonable. During his long creative life master was created about 1,500 works, which are scattered to numerous museums and private collections. Into a single space directory will provide an opportunity to trace the career of the master, and, if necessary, and refer to this directory to confirm the identity emerging on the art market, art Konchalovsky.
Site Foundation http://www.pkonchalovsky.com/a_principle.html
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Старый 18.09.2010, 12:41 Язык оригинала: Русский       #8
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По умолчанию State Scientific-Research Institute of Restoration (Sector expertise)

State Scientific-Research Institute of Restoration (GosNIIR) is the only specialized agency in the country, leading the development of modern scientific methods of interdisciplinary research, conservation, restoration and storage of cultural heritage.
The high scientific credibility of the institute in the country and abroad there thanks to a unique team of staff, which includes both representatives of natural sciences and humanities, and restorers practitioners.
Intellectual potential GosNIIR absorbed the experience of previous generations of researchers and restorers and constantly growing, based on the latest achievements of domestic and world science.

Sector Expertise

Sector expertise was organized in 1973 with the support of IP Gorin and in 1976 got its final legal clearance. Throughout the history of its existence sector closely involved in a variety of expert studies of paintings and iconography in order to determine their authenticity, the authenticity of the alleged time and a specific author.

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A significant place in the framework of research activities is the work of fixing movable historical and cultural monuments located in the enjoyment of the Orthodox and Old Believer communities. Employees of the sector, up to 1992, inclusive, were examined churches of Moscow, Moscow, Kuibyshev (now Samara), Chelyabinsk, Volgograd, Krasnodar, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kiev. During this period, meetings were described more than a thousand churches and chapels. Numerous publications previously unissued material introduced into science a significant number of works by painters, masters of arts and crafts, scribes of the New Age. Thus, it laid the foundation for a broad study that part of Russian culture, which had previously been ignored by specialists.

 Initially, the main principle, reflected in the expertise of the sector is to require a comprehensive study of any significant monument is not only based on the definition of style, national and other features, but also including a thorough examination of its material parts. That is why, in addition to practical work, each year accumulating a valuable archive of standards, the staff sector considerable efforts have focused on creating the most effective method of combining arts and technology (microscope, ultraviolet, X-ray, chemical analysis, etc.) research methods. In combination with high professional training (all staff have higher education and art criticism at the same time profound knowledge of technique and technology of works of art), this gives an opportunity to successfully work with different materials of different time and ethnicity.

One of the priority directions of scientific and methodological activities of the sector was the development of new and complete system document the examination results, the creation of paper and electronic archive. To date, many of these innovations, taken into service practices and other specialized organizations. Branch deems it necessary and very helpful to use the principle of close cooperation between specialists. Therefore, to solve research problems of sector working with colleagues from other divisions of the Institute (Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Research, Department of easel oil painting, tempera painting easel division, etc.), draws particular specialists from other organizations. Moreover, the approach to the expert work in the sector has its methodological characteristics, with emphasis on the collective research, special attention not only to the stylistic features works, but a study of his place in the history of art techniques and technologies, each employee has a pronounced scientific interest. The main priorities of such in-depth research related to the Russian icon painting, the legacy of the Russian avant-20-40-ties of the twentieth century, western European art. The results are systematically published in the collections of the Institute and other publications.

To date, the expert division GosNIIR firmly among the leading organizations in the country. People - often members of many conferences in Russia and abroad. Their professionalism makes it possible to work and exchange experiences with foreign museums and research centers. Apart from working in Russia specialist knowledge sector has repeatedly been claimed to participate in the examination of various works in Switzerland, Holland, France, Italy, Czech Republic, USA, UK, Finland, Greece and other scientific projects supported by multiple staff in the grants of the Soros Foundation, RFBR Unification Ministry of Culture, Malevich Society in New York. Publication of research results took place in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Riga, Tallinn, Yaroslavl, Sergiev Posad, Ufa, New Valaam, Recklinghausen, Stockholm. Sector professionals were at the source the teaching expertise and the creation of educational programs in the Russian State Humanitarian University (1995 - 2001), Graduate School of restoration and other educational institutions. Sector expertise has also repeatedly acted as organizer and partner of numerous exhibitions, both at home and abroad.

The activities developed in the sector is determined GosNIIR documents:

• Contract for the provision of expert services, a public offer GosNIIR (contract offer).
In the sector of work and work:

• Mikhail Krasilin - Head of the sector review in 1973
• Yuri Malkov - from 1973 to 1998; Ph.D.
• Nikolai Kiselev - from 1975 to 1983
• Alexander Samoilov - from 1980 to 1990, from 1995 to 2006
• Alexei Zhukov - from 1982 to 1992
• Elena Danchenko - from 1983 to present, Senior Researcher
• Eugene Novoselskaya - from 1985 to 1991
• Boris Lukyanov - from 1988 to 1994
• Julian Halturin - from 1991 to present; Senior Researcher, Ph.D.
• Vladimir Ivanov - from 1991 to 1999
• Lidia Popova - from 1992 to present, Senior Researcher, Ph.D.
• Cyril Pleschunov - from 1994 to present; Photographer
• Julia yakonova - from 1998 to present, Senior Researcher
• Kirill Nikolaev - from 1999 to present, Senior Researcher
• Sergei Kochkin - from 2000 to present, Senior Researcher, Ph.D.
The most significant publishing sector:

1.Danchenko EA, Krasilin MM Materials for the dictionary icon-XVII-XX centuries. M., 1994.
2.Dyakonova YB Experience comprehensive study paintings. Painting TN Glebova AI M., 1999.
3.Dyakonova YB Bronislaw Corwin Kamensakya. Materials for creative biography /Lelekovskie reading. M., 2005.
4.Dyakonova YB Graphics Konchalovsky /Antiques. Art and collectibles. M., 2006. May.
5.Kochkin SA Investigation of unknown watercolors of Charles Bryullova /artistic heritage. Storage. Research. Restoration. № 20. M., 2003.
6.Kochkin SA Painting GG Gagarin Eastern scene. Unusual Messenger //artistic heritage. Storage. Research. № 21. M., 2004.
7.Kochkin SA The Poetics of Painting Rybchenkova /artistic heritage. Storage. Research. Restoration. № 22. M., 2005.
8.Krasilin MM, Danchenko EA, Naumova, MM About the same Palekh icon of the XVIII century: Studies in the Restoration. Proceedings of the international research conference. Moscow. December 4-6, 2001. M., 2002. S. 93-101.
9.Krasilin MM Danchenko EA Symbolic and innovations in the late Russian icon painting //read memory IP Bolotseva. IX. Yaroslavl. 2005.
10.Krasilin MM, Naumov, MM, EA Danchenko Research Group Nevyansk icons //Art of the Christian world. Vol. JM, 2007.
11.Krasilin MM, Halturin YA, Ivanov VA Examination of works of art and its methods //Examination of works of fine art. The first scientific conference. GTG and association Magnum Ars. M., 1996.
12.Krasilin MM VNIIR role in the study and recording of movable monuments of fine art /restoration of museum items in the USSR. Problems and modern methods of research. Research Seminar. Abstracts. Sat M., 1984.
13.Krasilin MM Survey monuments of art in the Latvian SSR. (Ancient art and its traditions) //artistic heritage. № 10. M.: VNIIR, 1985.
14.Krasilin MM Monuments of art XVI - XX centuries. in nemuzeynyh meetings (Moscow Church of St. John the Baptist). Catalog-1 //artistic heritage. Vol. 12. M.: VNIIR, 1989.
15.Krasilin MM Features of Baroque iconography XVIII century //Baroque in Russia. M., 1994.
16.Krasilin MM, Rakhmanov MP Spiritual environment of Russia. Chant books and icons XVII-beginning of XX centuries. Catalog album. M., 1996.
17.Krasilin MM Folk icon: regional variations //Russian folk art. Sergiev Posad, 1998 (abridged version published in Finland).
18.Krasilin MM On the reconstruction of creative activity Palekh icon-painter Vasily Khokhlova /Scientific Readings in Memory IP Bolotseva (II). Yaroslavl, 1998.
19.Krasilin MM Two Pskov icons from Daugavpils //Art of the Christian world. Vol. III. M., 1999.
20.Krasilin MM Portrait of Tsar Ivan the Terrible: XVII century or century XX? //Space of life. By the 85 th anniversary of Academician BV Raushenbaha. Sat M.: Nauka, 1999. S. 503-513.
21.Krasilin MM The monuments of religious art in the Chelyabinsk region //artistic heritage. № 17. M.: GosNIIR, 1999.
22.Krassilin M. Kyprianos und Justinia. Eine Ikone im Ikonen-Museum Recklinghausen. Recklinghausen, 2000 (Russian version published in Yaroslavl).
23.Krasilin MM Expertise and Markets: ideals and reality /art market in the structure of the Russian economy. Scientific-practical conference. September 6-9, 2000. Nizhny Novgorod, 2000.
24.Krasilin MM M., 2001.
25.Krasilin MM Russian icon of the XVIII - early XX centuries //History of iconography. MM: ART-BMB, 2002. S. 209-230.
26.Nikolaev KA The Orthodox church interior: Specificity study nemuzeynyh assembly. Sat № 10. St. Petersburg.: Academy of Public Relations MC RF, 2000.
27.Nikolaev KA On the original interior decoration of the Church of St. John the Warrior on Yakimanka /Scientific Readings in Memory IP Bolotseva. Vol. VI. Yaroslavl, 2002.
28.Nikolaev KA Church of St. Peter and Paul in Lefortovo. Peculiarities of Interior //Scientific Readings in Memory IP Bolotseva. Vol. VII. Yaroslavl, 2003.
29.Nikolaev KA Unknown work of Viktor Vasnetsov. № 1-2 (10-11). SPb., 2004.
30.Nikolaev KA On the creative method Karp Zolotarev. Iconic portrait of the late XVII century //sources on the history of restoration and study of the monuments of Russian culture. Twentieth century (based on the scientific conference on 6-10 August 2003) Sat Art. M.: Indrik, 2005.
31.Nikolaev KA Two of V. Vasnetsov /Lelekovskie reading. M., 2005.
32.Popova LI The theoretical basis and the natural restoration and preservation of museum collections. M., 1999.
33.Samoylov AY Unified description of historical and cultural monuments (vnemuzeyny Fund) //Artistic Heritage (special issue). M., 1989.
34.Samoylov YA Problems normative description of the copper casting (small plastic) //Russian copper casting. Sat Vol. 1. M., 1993.
35.Samoylov YA Third Semiradsky - Semiradsky? //Art. 2003. № 2, March /April.
36.Samoylov AY Listen to the athletes, their body of poetry (newly identified pattern A. Deineka) //Antiques. 2003. № 10 (9), September.
37.Samoylov YA Was the picture in the restoration? //Antiques. 2004. № 7-8, September.
38.Halturin YA The problems of imitation and authenticity of works of the late 19 - early 20 century //artistic heritage. № 16. M., 1995.
39.Halturin YA Proceedings. M., 1998.
40.Halturin YA Russian avant-garde. The original and imitation /Avant-Garde 1910 - 1920. Interaction of the Arts. Proceedings. M., 1998.
41.Halturin YA On a picturesque Technology Malevich: From expressive primitivism to Suprematism /Russian avant-1910-1920-ies and the problem of expressionism. M.: Nauka, 2003.
42.Halturin YA Suprematic Technology Kazimir Malevich: its possibilities and limits //Non-objectivity and abstraction: the formation of the plastic language. Proceedings. State Institute of Art. Moscow, 2004.
43.Halturin YA Early studies of Pavel Filonov. The story of the continuation //ARTCHRONIKA. 2004. № 5.
44.Halturin YA Studying the works of Kasimir Malevich from the collection Stedeliyk Museum and Foundation Khardzhiev-chaga: Studies in the preservation of cultural heritage. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference. M.: Indrik, 2005.
45.Halturin YA Early studies of Pavel Filonov. N. 11 /Experiment. Publication of the University of Southern California. Los Angeles, 2006.
46.Halturin YA Malevich - editor of Malevich. On the question of copyright developments in the works 1900-1910-s //Collection. 2008. № 1.
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По умолчанию Company \\

History, goals and opportunities tehnologicheskgo study works of art.
(Yuri Grönberg)

One of the key problems of development of Russian art market is the problem of establishing the authenticity of works. Birth in Russia civilized market relations, joining the world community entails the emergence of new institutions that meet the requirements of the international community, often inflated in relation to the Russian art because of the frequent lack of convincing information about the origin of things and the numerous scandals involving fake.
Its goal - to provide a comprehensive examination and evaluation of works of Russian art, the necessary and sufficient for the insurance of private collections. The Laboratory of Art Consulting was examined and certified by the British insurance market, underwriters Lloyds. On the history, purpose and possibilities of technological expertise says the director of the laboratory, the author of numerous books and publications on the history of painting technology, Dr Habil Jurij Grönberg.

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The product of easel painting - painting in the broadest sense - is a set of materials, manufacturing operations and creative initiative of the painter in the role of the carrier of a specific idea, which he materializes. Therefore, the basis of any examination of how art criticism, and technology are the answers to the questions: what? when? where? Who? and how?

However, even today, most art experts, while remaining within the traditional museum attribution, bases his conclusion on the authenticity, time or place of establishment of works of art, its author, only on an assessment of the artistic side of the work. Using the methodology of comparative stylistic analysis, personal experience and intuition, these experts, responding to questions - when? where? or who? But when divided by what and how, in image and material, the creative result, the amount of means and methods by which this result is achieved, the area of technology, that is the active component of the creative process of painting, remains out of sight of the expert.

The world of art is limitless. Works of art scattered throughout countless museums and private collections. And in almost every meeting has its masterpieces. And if they do not, then under the picture of an unknown master, or under an old copy of the label appears, connecting a blade with the name of Raphael or Rembrandt, or Rokotoff Briullov.

This case is not without falsification, The increasing size and exciting new and emerging field of art.

In the middle of the XVI century, Leopold Wilhelm of Austria acquired 68 fakes Durer, considering them as originals. In the XVII century, has undergone massive fraud Dutch and Italian painting. When the forgery was discovered, the Amsterdam magistrate appointed for the trial 50 experts, half of them recognized the paintings are genuine, and others - announced their counterfeit. In the XVIII century forged by Dutch genre painter of XVII century, in the XIX century they forged along with paintings by Flemish masters. With the emergence of demand for works by artists of modern times has increased the number of forgeries of French Impressionist and Post-Impressionists. After them came the turn of Matisse, Picasso and other masters. The widespread in our time has become the fabrication works of Russian artists abroad XIX - XX centuries, and especially by Russian avant-garde.

How to protect the art market from all sorts of fraud? Does today's science is the means to scientifically substantiate the judgments about the authenticity of works, the reliability of attributions?

About a century ago among the connoisseurs of art arose previously unknown type of professional, so-called expert. Moving from country to country, from the museum tour, an expert in making a specialty of the attribution of works of art. Visual memory and produced by intuition allowed connoisseur do not always infallible, but usually quite accurate conclusion about the authenticity and authorship of a work.

In conclusion, it is all just a connoisseur of his authority. Experts believe, whether right or wrong. His name determines the price of the painting, is a guarantee for the buyer. This expert is not obliged to substantiate its conclusion.

Meanwhile, a spate of stories about fraud in the arts suggests that experts, limited to only the style and external features paintings, intuition can be ineffective in relation to the masterfully executed imitations.

Dr. Bredius, a recognized authority, an expert on Dutch painting, this painting is called first-class product of Vermeer's Delft. Ten years later, it blew one of the biggest scandals in the history of art. Recall that in the late 20-ies of the XX century, many museum professionals have come to believe that an intuitive method is not the surest way to insure the museums and art market from non-genuine paintings. Even then, the subjective evaluations made by experts, attracting more and more protests and distrust of Directors of major European museums. In this case it is not always talked about deliberate falsifications. before us a picture Levitsky. Bernard Bernson, which described not only as one of the best, but as the most successful expert, admitted that he studied at the Louvre paintings by Leonardo da Vinci, for forty years and for fifteen years, several times changed his opinion of them. All make mistakes.

In 1930, in the pages of the German magazine «Die Kunstauktion» a discussion on the goals, challenges and opportunities for artistic expertise, which was attended by museum directors, art historians, experts, art dealers. And although some participants felt that expertise necessary evil which can not be replaced, but true to their concept of an expert individual experts have denied any possibility of control over their working methods, the prevailing opinion was that since the examination is considered to be scientific research, it can give no more than the existing level of science, but it should not and fall below that level. And the only way to improve the reliability of expert authors of this point of view seen in the application of natural science research methods of painting.

However, after decades of technological research, gradually occupied its rightful place in the research activities of the major art museums and science centers, remained virtually untapped in the expert work.

Technological Expertise
Admittedly, the technological features of easel painting has recently been evident only in the most general terms. But due to held in the past half-century technological research products themselves, it became clear that the use of materials and technological methods of constructing the picture, there are certain regularities and specific features, characteristic of the works of certain periods, national, and local schools, individual artists. Today we can talk about the typical traits inherent in each structural element of the picture - based, ground, pattern, pigment layer - and the existence of canonical forms of the most picturesque of the process, typical of some art schools and epochs, it is about the characteristics that define possible in a narrow temporal and regional specificity within the technology works in general.

Experience shows that knowledge of these laws makes quite an objective examination and follow-attribution more accurate. This is especially important that the area of intuitive in the definition of the various phenomena of intellectual human activities increasingly recede from the requirement of reasonable assurance and assessment. And it is clear that the lack of the necessary technological features in a painting attributed to a particular time, school or master, can speak of the incompatibility of the work with its existing or doing attribution.

Thus, scientifically based answer to the question how did the product, allows a qualitatively different level to say when, where, and in some cases, and who created it.

What is the reliability of the conclusions of technological expertise?

The results of technological research is absolutely objective, which determine the material picture, for example, the composition of pigments or binder of the paint layer or soil. But it shows their chemical composition on the establishment or the authenticity of the work itself? And it turns out that the end result of examination is completely dependent only on the competence of the expert: on its ability to correctly interpret the data.

Hence, as in any examination, in the end it is all about the professionalism of the expert. The only difference is that the professionalism in this case is not based on subjective feelings and intuition and is based on a logical understanding of correspondence received during the research work expertized accurate laboratory data with objective data obtained under identical conditions in the study of original paintings by the same master, the time or school.

Laboratory analysis of each structural element of the paintings gathered by the current technical information allows to state with varying degrees of validity of judgments about the origin of expertized works.

Already a basis picture - its material, the structure (type of wood, fiber fabrics, the composition of the metal), structural features, a possible the difference in its parts, modification of the original format, and so on. - Allows presumably attributed to the product of a particular time or place of creation.

Primer painting - its structure, composition and color are objectively demonstrate the time and place of work is created, it can be attributed to one region or another, art school, or, conversely, indicate its incompatibility with the product of a master or a school. Investigation of soil due to the inherent characteristics of its components dating back - one of the main and indispensable aspects of technological expertise, in many cases is decisive in its conclusions.

Author's drawing, if the identification, showing the progress of work on the painting, makes it possible to judge the author's performance of authenticity or origin of the product. Comparison of the detected image with a pattern of original works of masters, with his graphic works of the author expands the possibilities of establishing a picture.

Pigment layer - its composition and structure - the most fully reflects the specific choice of materials and techniques inherent in certain periods, schools and individual artists. After it had been subject to some regularity in the use of pigments, binders and finished colors, having, like soil, dating back symptoms, it became possible on the basis of their identification in conjunction with the identified characteristics of the remaining structural elements of the picture, saying not only when and where it was created under investigation product, but also suggested its author, or to deny him membership in the studied works.

To date, well-known speaker and a time frame on a range of pigments classical paintings were known previously unknown, but is used in the past, pigments known dates of discovery and commercial production of pigments of modern times, known group of pigments that are open and spread at the beginning and middle of XX century. Finally, substantial information on the characteristic set of pigments that were used at different times in various national schools and selected the most outstanding masters of painting.

Binder in paint and soil, as well as pigments, also remained unchanged. Starting with the second third of the XX century, in oil paint does not begin to add the previously used resin and wax, and previously known resins used in the new capacity or new proportions. But even if the paint layer does not contain tar, and consists only of oil, the study of its physico-chemical parameters (state oil matrix, the direction of polymerization, and so on.) Gives an indication of the actual age of the work, that took, it aging - he was a natural or artificial. An important milestone in the evolution of painting techniques was the use of synthetic adhesives. In the 1930's were invented alkyd, acrylic and vinyl polymers and are known accurate data production on the basis of their art paints abroad. Since the late 50's - early 60-ies of XX century synthetic materials began to be applied to domestic production of decorative paints, they have become part of the picturesque practice. Specific time frames are used and different kinds of glue painting - gouache and watercolors, tempera binder (including so-called synthetic tempera, often used to falsify the graphic works of Russian avant-garde).

With all this information, the method developed by research and experience gained in the course of technological expertise it is possible to significantly narrow the scope of execution of unknown or disputed paintings.

Technological research and technological expertise
Technological study of paintings done in two directions.

Problems associated with the study's method of work of the artist, with a master hand, changes in the product during its creation, during the subsequent existence or possible restoration are addressed through a set of methods, non-destructive and works based on the use of visible, ultraviolet, infrared and X-ray regions of electromagnetic spectrum.

Problems associated with determining the time and place of work is created, its authenticity, calling for studies of internal structure and materials basis, soil, drawing, paint layer (the composition of pigments and binder), are solved in the laboratory and examines the work with microsamples using complex methods of microchemical analysis and physico-chemical instrumental methods.


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По умолчанию Some features of the picturesque Italian masters of the first half of XVII century.

Some features of the picturesque Italian masters of the first half of XVII century
DC Pichugin
Relevance marked in the subject header associated with the problems of assessment and attribution of works of art. Interest in her has intensified not only in connection with purely scientific challenges facing the staff of museums in Russia and abroad. Activating antique market and sophisticated counterfeiting industry, gaining momentum in recent decades, put before the experts and more complicated problems whose solution is possible only through deep-developed theoretical basis, based on a study of features formopostroeniya and technical-technological methods of painting old masters.

The main directions of such research have been formulated in the writings of Ernst Berger [1935], AA Rybnikova [1927 1937], LE Feinberg [1937], DI Kiplika [1927]. In the postwar period in Europe and America, a number of research centers, conducting technical and technological research of museum collections. Established such specialized journals that publish the results of these studies, as «The National Gallery Technical Bulletin», published by the Research Institute of the National Gallery in London. Makes his first attempt lessons material [see: Hamsik, 1982]. [SPOILER] This work was the result of years of study exhibits the largest Russian and foreign museums: the Hermitage, the Museum of Fine Arts Pushkin, the Metropolitan Museum (New York), the National Gallery (Washington), the art museums of Brussels and Vienna. Another important precondition were technical and technological research works of Western European painting from the collection of the Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, held for fifteen years, T. Maksimova, researcher sector expertise of the Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage (Moscow), which allowed visibly touch the art practice of Italian artists of interest to us [see: Pichugin, 2002, 56 - 61].

Turning to the theme indicated in the title, we note that the paintings and stylistic devices characteristic of the works of Italian artists of the first half of XVII century., Evolved over a long time. It was used by the tremendous theoretical and practical experience that has accumulated an Italian painting during the previous two centuries 1.

In the second half of the XVI century. the legacy of Titian created a new relationship to blossom. Preferring color harmony paintings, the artists have abandoned the principle of balancing the bright spots of the spectral and began to create color under the laws of colors. These changes were associated both with the historical conditions that determined the aesthetic views of the era, and with the technical methods, in particular with the widespread use of oil painting as the main pictorial material. Thus, at the beginning of XVII century. established a new range of beautifully-plastic problems, which defined the peculiarity of Italian works of this period.

Despite the diversity of selected regional schools of art and creative individuals can make a few general typological features that are always present if not all, the vast majority of Italian paintings of this time. This is a problem of form in connection with the chiaroscuro, perspectiveness construction, format and size of paintings and, finally, with the color of its combination with light and form.

The problem of form was the most important of all the problems emerging in this time period. The transfer of bodies, and especially the human body in all its complexity, expressiveness and beauty has become the main task was working on the Italian master. Man is for them under intense scrutiny. The rich tradition of Renaissance art and XVI century Italian masters gave a great freedom in constructing the human figure, the ability to flawlessly in terms of anatomical features to portray the richness of postures, movements and gestures. The figures appear in different, sometimes extremely difficult angles. Hidden dynamics perspectiveness building forms in conjunction with the methods of typification and generalization of the exterior of the characters gave the Italian paintings special grace and understated beauty. It should be noted at this programmatic failure not only of specific individual portrait resemblance, but also from a psychological interpretation of images of individual characters. Striving for typing lessons, inner significance of the images was one of the important features of Italian art. Expressive gestures, the representativeness of postures combined with restrained force of the movement of figures have become an important compositional techniques of Italian painters of this period.

Hence the special interest in the transfer of plasticity of the human body, methods and techniques, enabling reliable transfer capacity and its development in space. Naturally, in this way were forced to search for plastic masters underlined attention to the problem of light and shadow and lighting in their relationship with the form. To focus the viewer's attention on what is happening, artists restrict the depth of space behind the painting of figures and increased the size of your character in relation to the format of the picture. At the same time painters have tried to maximize the lateral directional lighting to reinforce the impression of objects, but also injected a dark background, which allowed the use of highlight and thus closer to the viewer's major figures, and some areas of space. Italian artists already in the late XVI-XVII centuries. The Renaissance method, you can associate shapes the foreground with a background as a tonally, and with the help line. Form with the broadcast system of light tones within a single local color stains. Painting in general has a special svetonostnostyu and built within a light tonal range.

By the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries. techniques for modeling the cut-off are beginning to change. There are various ways to construct forms to create carnation and draperies. The most typical and widely used technique for writing carnation was the use of the following system of construction: a dark warm brown shadow zone of one or two cold and different degrees teploholodnosti tones with a slightly greenish or bluish tint, and finally, the light is usually warm under a cover lacquer, slightly yellowish color. Thus, in general, carnation lined up within a warm, golden-brown monochrome chosen colors. Light, subtle modulation of color tone wonderfully conveyed a sense of warmth, softness and elasticity of human flesh. The body, face and hands are usually lined up in the boundaries of the scheme. However, the various parts of the body characters were a hierarchy of relationships between lightness. Often the bright light flashed not a person, but the breast image. Accordingly, there were present and the darkest shadows, concentrated in the forearm, underarm, hand, depending on the position of his hands. Shadow on the face or other parts of the body in relation to the most illuminated and the darkest part of the figure could remain within the average, and sometimes a light gray. Accordingly, if the leg or arm were assigned a character into the picture space, they went into a zone of warm halftones, plain brown, ocher-red or slightly yellowish-brown.

Carnation shapes of the second plan also remain entirely within the medium, and sometimes dark and warm tones. This wealth of tones created by the ability of oil paint is translucent in thin layers. In this case, white, laid on the warm dark soil or podmalevku, by law, the chromatic contrast of cool take on different shades depending on the thickness of the paint layer, usually green or blue [see: Rybnikov, 1935, 46]. Thick smears of white opaque, in contrast, had a strong showing ability, and these areas were perceived most bright and vivid.

The impression of the volume is usually associated with the number of semitones. The more tones will be able to reproduce the artist, the more clear and rounded the image. In relation to each other, these halftone areas have varying degrees of lightness and teploholodnosti hue. In general, the decision of naked body parts lying within the same ocher and gold scales.

The second method of constructing forms of the naked body was to reduce the light tones and work mainly in the medium and dark tones. At the same time in the picture is the predominance of shaded areas. Illuminated area takes up less space and became cool in tone. Increase the area of the picture, taken by the cold gray-blue and brownish-gray undertones, and the overall tone of the picture is somewhat dull, evening or night, as if lit by moonlight. Note also that in certain periods of his career working as Guercino and the late Caravaggio.

Another way to create forms carnation is to reduce the number of semitones. Shadow and light in this case played approximately equal roles and occupy approximately equal parts in a composition. Sometimes the shadow areas predominated. However, the region was sharply narrowed semitones why body shape acquired a flattened appearance. Shadows at the same time becomes dense and cold. When writing draperies garments Italian masters of the first half of XVII century. contributed to the dynamics of color composition, and their cut-off the modeling was conducted within a single tone color stains. The critical factor in the current method was unifying character shadows. One of brightness and color tone is laid usually like to write the background, and individual spatial plans and sections of dense shadows. He created that general framework, which harmonized the individual, often contrasting color spots.

The development of color tone within the same local color stains are likely to occur, causing the active bright color halftones, such as red or blue, and then vysvetleniya it by adding a whitewash in the lighted areas and in areas utemneniya dark tones with dark scumbling, often inflicted with colored lacquer . So wrote the bright blue, red, yellow draperies. The most dense and dark shadows are usually toned in color of a dark background and often represented areas prolessirovannogo dark soil. This coloristic decision to make the picture, on the one hand, the necessary tension and create the effect of the internal dynamics of leaf color, but on the other - made it possible to combine the compositional balance and contrast in nature color spots.

All of the above methods of constructing forms implemented through the creation of a special pictorial structure, where each element, including the soil, Underpainting, registration, glaze and cover varnishes, played an important role in creating a beautiful whole.

A huge role in creating the paintings assigned ground. He served not only technological functions, providing a link between the base and beautiful layers, but organically affect the character of the picturesque whole. At the beginning of XVII century. in Italian painting used colored soils - gray, sandy ocher, brown, different shades: from light brown to reddish-brown and dark-brown slightly umbristo rather cold tones. Introduction colored soil is a huge role for all, without exception, the characteristics of the picturesque whole.

If the soil was gray or light ocher, he usually played the role of light in semitones podmalevke. Artist outlined the light whitewash, and the shadows are usually dark gray or brown paint, leaving the field semitones non painted (the color of the soil).

In a dark ground work was done in podmalevke in highlights and midtones are usually white or other light-colored top coats. The soil remained not closed in the areas of dark shadows, sometimes up to the final stages of work. On the set of Italian paintings of this time, you can watch parts of the soil, through a thin layer of translucent glaze or uncovered as a result of previous restorations. By mid-century, when artists began to favor sprawling cursive, dark soil often remained non painted at the junction of different color spots and zones of shadows.

As an integral part of a coloristic paintings, colored soil is generalizing effect on the scenic unit, giving the individual a bright color spots are the color characteristics, which, on the one hand, increased the tonal contrast of the bright spots, but on the other - eliminates patchiness and gave coloring restrained nobility, ranking color within a single color series. Another important property of the color of soil was the work done on them white. In thin layers of white, superimposed on a dark ground, take cool greenish or bluish tint, as mentioned above. Thus, it should be noted that the soils were colored by Italian painters of the first half of XVII century. an integral part of the picturesque process, participating in constructing a picture from the very beginning to its completion.

Another important part of the structure of the painting is Underpainting. It represents the first stage of painting. In podmalevke artist has been working on a form, specifying the composition, the location of individual figures, checking the ratio of masses of color, identifying and building volume. As mentioned above, light gray or ocher ground work was done in podmalevke in highlights white or other light-colored top coats. Shadows prokryvalis dark glaze. Thin layers of white, deposited on the gray ground, created by the law of contrast lightweight warm, slightly pink undertone.

On the dark brown soil colors of different shades work podmalevke conducted in highlights and midtones. In the dark shadows remained unclassified tons of soil. At sites of lights belies the paint (usually white, if it was about writing carnation, or color opacity paint - red, yellow or blue in the image of clothes) superimposing relatively easy, a layer, the density of its corresponding to the average of gray. Lots of shadows, as already mentioned, remained in reserve (non painted) in the color of dark soil.

The next stage of work on the picture is registered. The author has been working, clarifying and, if necessary, adjusting this or that detail in the sections of carnation shape and color of draperies. Continued identification of objects, developed sunlit areas form by multiple layers of paving their bodily opacity of paint, if it was to write the body, or color, if you write draperies. At the stage propisok picture is almost complete in nature.

The last two stages - work in podmalevke and registration - are the most expressive in terms of an individual author's technique, which consists in the special characteristic of individual artists how to paint overlay, its consistency, strength, character stroke. However, there were some common trends fakturopostroeniya.

Smooth on the whole surface of the fabric beginning of the century has to 1620 m years. was more lively and dynamic. Caravaggio at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries.


M., 1989.

1982. 44. S.


- 2006.
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