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Старый 13.02.2014, 23:36 Язык оригинала: Русский       #1
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По умолчанию Missing from the picture gallery Tver found at the Tretyakov Gallery?


Missing from the picture gallery Tver found at the Tretyakov Gallery ?

Rare case when decades later found the stolen work - just such a story happened to the Russian landscape painting luminary Vladimir Orlovsky.

War - Year 1941 th . Germans come in Tver. Chaos , death, looting. Retreating invaders carry with them all they can. Among the trophies - about four hundred paintings from Tver Art Museum. Among them - the work of Levitan , Kustodiev , Polenov and serene landscape Vladimir Orlovsky , written in a village with a strange name Thais . This landscape got strange fate: the decades after the war, he " floated" in the capital - not anywhere , and at the Reception House of the Russian Government . Or Morozovskiy mansion Vozdvizhenka canvas only like Tver exhibit - the author's hand , another experience master who inspired more than one year , " Thai " beauty ?

 Mirror- smooth water lightly touches breeze . It reflected the islands of trees and pale silhouette manor away . Foreground splashing ducks and water lilies grow . Idyll, which saw her Vladimir Orlovsky in the late nineteenth century - the artist , which were called "the luminary of the Russian landscape ," for whose paintings queued aristocrats in the subjects which critic Stasov saw "a lot of simplicity and truth."

In front of us - two reproductions of this landscape : one (black ) is published in the "Bulletin " Tver Art Gallery , the other ( in color ) - catalog of the Tretyakov Gallery. The first picture is listed under the name " Thais ", the second - " Pond . Summer evening . " Find differences in any way ? Comes out!

Hence , the work of the number lost during the Second World from Tver galleries ( Ministry of Culture is wanted ) and the scenery from the pages of one of the volumes describing the Metropolitan Museum funds - one and the same picture ? It turns out it was written in a village with an exotic name Thais , then turned in Tver, where was kidnapped and then " settled " in the capital ?

It happens that the product falls life even more dramatic than its creator . It seems that this is the case with the fate of the painting .
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Page from the catalog of the Tretyakov Gallery , which transferred to the museum published works from the collection Gorshina .

Photo : Maria Moskvicheva


Abandoned trophy

So, the picture of the wanted the Ministry of Culture ( published on the site office appropriate list ) , the last quarter century rests in the Tretyakov Gallery . Stumbled on this discovery , of course, not a random person , and one of the leaders of fakes and catalogs of works on the wanted list , Vladimir Roschin .

- This is a great success ! Event ! Sure , the picture is better to return to Tver. There she will be on permanent display , and not collecting dust in the vaults of THG ! - He assured "MK" , which first reported the find .

In Tver gallery glad the news . Together with the head . scientific and exhibition department Vladimir Biberinym we tried to trace the fate of the picture, given the fact that published in the catalog of the Tretyakov Gallery , the blade is received in the Metropolitan Museum as a gift from Professor Sergei Gorshina .


Professor Sergei Gorshin ( portrait by Vladimir Igoshev ) .

Photo : Maria Moskvicheva


Help "MK" : Sergey Gorshin - Candidate Forest Sciences . In 1932 he moved to Moscow , where he worked at the Institute of forest crops , and later - in the laboratory in wood protection TSNIIMOD . During the war , to evacuate , to put it in the hands of German landscape painting Anton Bright - since he never stopped collecting art until his death . In 1997, Sergei died at the age of 99 years. The best part of the collection ( 60 works ) , he gave TG remaining - including work Levitan , Shishkin and Aivazovsky - Art Gallery is located in the town of Khimki , where he lived for many years after the death of her professor named after him .

- Landscape Orlovsky was kidnapped during the occupation of the city in 1941. Fortunately , we have preserved glass negative depicting the work. Apparently, the Germans took the picture , and then, during the retreat , it is dropped. I think she changed to Gorshina several owners. He could buy it in an antique shop or swap with someone.

- And as the picture was in Tver gallery?

- Orlovsky was a popular author , his works adorn many estates Tver province. We have no precise information about its origins . What we do know is the fact that the picture came to us from a regional museum in 1937, and there is likely to hit after the Revolution , when there was a nationalized property estates. Most of the old collection - it's just stuff from estates.

- Happened before such precedents ? Whether to return to your museum stolen work ?

- Yes, there were a few such situations. Some abductees returned to work after the occupation of the locals : paintings found in those houses where there were Germans , and transferred to the museum. And some work back later. So , work Venetsianov revealed in the Russian Museum and returned to Tver art gallery in the late '50s .

- Do you think that once opened , that picture of your museum - the Tretyakov Gallery , as should decide her fate ?

- This should solve museum directors and the Ministry of Culture . I wish that came back to us . Of course, if it happens , we will make a special exhibition will explore and describe the fate of the catalogs . It will be an event not only for us but also for all museums - many lost painting by the thousands, tens of thousands during the war. This story will be a glimmer of hope for them.

Tropical homeland near St. Petersburg

Before heading to the Tretyakov Gallery , fast forward to the nineteenth century .

Thais born in landscape - in the St. Petersburg area, 32 km from the Northern capital. Famous village where he lives more than three thousand people , its geysers and keys - that is still responding to its " tropical " title. And the fact that once belonged to the ancestors of Alexander Pushkin. Peter I conquered the land and bestowed great-grandfather of the poet Admiral Golovin , and then they went to Abram Hannibal ( from whom "the sun of Russian poetry" has inherited his famous curls and tireless Ethiopian blood) . In the 70 years of the XVIII century, the land bought Miners of Alexander Demidov - he built a beautiful mansion with angular balconies around the perimeter of the building . According to legend, because of his daughter, who was ill with tuberculosis , so she could admire the beauty, without leaving the house , the father planned custom home , wherever views of the entire neighborhood . Landowner idea brilliantly embodied Ivan Star - by the time the celebrated architect who built the Tauride Palace and Trinity Cathedral in the Monastery of Alexander Nevsky. Demidov evaluate all possible underground springs and have arranged a magnificent park with a network of numerous ponds, picturesque bridges , gazebos and pavilions . Over his plan worked Pozdeev engineers and Bauer .

In the nineteenth century , this idyll attracted artists and musicians. Here was chosen to open-air landscape Semen Shchedrin , Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov wrote here one of his symphonies . For years, people came Vladimir Orlovsky - Ukrainian landscape , caressed Petersburg public attention , professor, member of the Board of the Academy of Arts . For several years he wrote " Thai " motives .

It is worth noting that the " Thai " period - one of the most prolific for Orlovsky. At this time, the artist reached the pinnacle of his skill and creativity. He had already see Switzerland and Italy , Little Russia and the Caucasus, Crimea and Finland to become a welcome author on international and domestic exhibitions . Orlovsky was popular not less than Aivazovsky . No wonder that his work can be found in the most respected living Petersburg and Moscow. It is possible that as " Thais " and were in the vicinity of Tver.

But what happened next with this work ? And where she is now - in the vaults of the Tretyakov Gallery or adorns the walls of one of the halls ? For answers go to the Metropolitan Museum .

Breakthrough in biography

In the office of chief curator of the Tretyakov Gallery Tatiana Gorodkova table filled with catalogs and documents. Top of neatly folded paper booklet with a small black cover - is a catalog of the exhibition of works from the collection of Sergei Gorshina . In it, one of the last pages , we find the same landscape that is looking Tver Museum.

- Here is the first letter from Sergei Gorshina the museum ( from 25.12.1986 ) , - with the dexterity of a magician catches his neat stopochek securities Tatyana S. and reads : " ... As a great admirer of Pavel Tretyakov donor and as a collector who wants to continue the tradition of the Russian intelligentsia to give the best museums and works of art in order to serve , I bring better and more significant works from his collection to the museum . I do not put any special conditions , I ask only that the work has been shown properly . " The exhibition was held in 1989 in the large exhibition hall on the Crimean Val .

At the exhibition was shown more than two hundred works from the collection Gorshina , including five works Orlovsky , including " Thai " landscape . After the museum's experts have selected 60 of the best things , including interest to us the picture.

- Where is the picture now?

- She exhibited at the Government Reception House of the Russian Federation , in the former mansion of Arseny Morozov Vozdvizhenka . We gave her a year ago and recently extended the contract for a year. Together with her to go there for another 15 pictures. Before this long exhibition of her dressed in a gold frame and photographed with high resolution , so you can see all the details. And you know all the fact that the picture of the Tver and our museum - one and the same thing!

- Why not? Even the untrained eye can see that the details spelled the same way: ducks , trees , farm house ...

- First, there are discrepancies in the sizes: Tver work - 53 to 107 cm, and the State Tretyakov Gallery - 54.4 to 106.2 .

- Not too much difference : during the restoration could change the size , may have incorrectly measure the canvas ...

- Yes, it's a small discrepancy , but it is. It happens that in the restoration of the dimensions can vary within a centimeter , it's true. But there is a second question - the state of conservation . " Cracks in the middle of a mess , bottom paint chips . Subframe with the crossbar. Gilded frame baguette "- read the description of the Tver gallery. But the thing came to us without a breakthrough and cracks. And without inventory number Tver gallery, which puts all the rules of every museum - usually on a stretcher , oil paint.

- Gorshin could restore job subframe could be replaced . That explains why change the canvas size .

- Could , but now we list the facts. Indeed, the restorers told me that the subframe , if he was unfit , could be replaced . I asked our experts : if there was a breakthrough , after the restoration of whether it is possible to see traces of it ? I was told that you can, but sometimes it is very difficult to do . Depends on what was a breakthrough and how it was removed during the restoration , if the picture is duplicated . To determine a breakthrough in the picture or not, it is necessary to investigate . An experienced eye specialist and technology and technological expertise , where it can be X-rayed to enlighten , to answer these questions.

- Can hold such an expert ?

- Yes , but not now : we can not take a picture of the Morozov mansion until it expires , which gave the museum the work under the contract. Have to wait. And then we can talk about copyright repetition. Artists of the time often wrote the same story - take at least " Rooks " Savrasova . If you look , you can see that in the foreground ripples in the water spelled differently. All these questions will give answers examination .

Well - wait.

Slowness of the Tretyakov Gallery , you can understand that in Soviet times the museum gave regional halls hundreds of pictures of the first masters ( to each student could study classical art history "alive" and not from reproductions ) and the museum still seems to remain on the psychological trauma about . Well, in general ...

- How to dispose of the story - and ordered . If decade as the picture came to the museum, it is better to leave there. This argument from the series that was recently for Morozovskaya collection , divided between the Hermitage and the Pushkin half a century ago . It 's not handed back to the Pushkin Museum, and , in my opinion , correct. The more that are harmful for the painting movement : shaking , temperature and humidity , which occur even spetstransport could affect safety. And we are very closely monitoring our funds - concluded keeper.

Well - the question remains for the next year . Happy one : the picture is displayed on the highest level - means the name Orlovsky , much less known today than the names of his contemporaries, has not been forgotten . His vision of natural beauty and harmony is displayed in one of the most beautiful mansions capital.

■ ■ ■

No matter how resolved this intrigue , it is far from the only one. Thousands of pictures were lost after the war - both from national museums and repositories of the countries - occupiers and of German treasuries . Only a few find their way home. In the history of the Tretyakov Gallery , for example, only one such case in Germany showed up one job , lost during the war, and after decades of German collector brought her back to Russia. True, the war is lost THG only some 33 things , and then only because they were given to exhibitions , when the Second World War (funds taken to evacuate ) . Values ​​of many other museums are less fortunate .

National cataloging museum fund of the Russian Federation began relatively recently. The decisive impetus for it was a scandal with the theft of works from the Hermitage. After total check Petersburg treasury funds and others engaged in museums. Description funds and drawing up a single electronic catalog goes so far. Actually, compiling lists and descriptions of stolen works , thanks to which surfaced story Orlovsky - part of a major museum inventory. If in 2012 , the year of the 170th anniversary of the artist's birth , Tverskaya gallery would not publish a single image , " Thai " landscape in an article about it, you would not now read the text. So, perhaps , the discovery of stolen landscape Orlovsky (or twin ) - only the first signs of future discoveries .

material: Maria Moskvicheva

Moskovsky Komsomolets number 26409 on December 13, 2013

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Последний раз редактировалось igorr; 14.02.2014 в 00:01.
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