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Problems of attribution
The collection of the Yaroslavl Art Museum currently has 8 pieces associated with the name Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov. Three of them - the signature one - no signature, but came from the author, three - do not have a signature and cast doubts on the authorship, are copies of, or perhaps by copyright repetitions, and one - etching.
Problems of identification and attribution of his works, in part, been addressed by the authors of the first catalog of the art department of the museum (then enter the Yaroslav, Rostov Museum), which was released in 1964 - EP Yudin, VP Mitrofanov. In its preparation, they corresponded with Dmitry Vasilyevich Polenov, the museum's director, VD Polenov, which greatly helped our museum in cataloging the works of his father. However, in the catalog did not include an important information from the letter - send VD Polenov his painting "Genisaret Lake" for the museum.
[SPOILER] Today it is necessary to correct this omission and, if possible, complete catalog of VD Polenova new information. After 1964, the museum received two more pictures related to Polenov, without a signature, which is necessary to attribute. At this time, the work continues, especially with three nepodpisnymi canvases, wearing authenticity in nature, which so far collected only information material and make a visual analysis. This, we think, is not enough and needs to be done their technical and technological research (TIT) and comparative analysis with the originals.
Four out of five works by VD Polenova admitted to the museum until 1964, although it did not pass TIT, without a doubt are genuine original works by the artist.
Let's start with the landscape, which has the author's signature and date - "Monte Parioli, near Rome," 1896 (on, m 17,9 x26, 9). Under this name he came into our catalog.
The product has full custody, written on a wooden board, finely polished with a turnover, with beveled edges. On the back of a stamp store art supplies in a panel with the inscription "L. BERVILLE [...]". The obverse of the texture of the wood is not visible. Painting light, heavy, smear partially smoothed palette knife.
It is an undisputed work Polenova - has the author's signature, monogram, contemporary original painting, lying under a layer of varnish and similar in shape of the letters with original signatures of the artist. Author's dating in your signature (1896) does not contradict the state board and colorful pastes. Depicted on the landscape is hilly terrain with a white stone bridge with a semicircular arch over a small almost dried up river. Name of the product was established by an inscription on an old frame (with a pencil "Monte Parioli"). Monte Parioli - a northern area of Rome, famous for its parks and gardens. He had previously belonged to the most beautiful urban surroundings, is a hilly terrain covered with vineyards. Title received from the villa, built by DB da Vignoles in 1550-1555 years. Cardinal Giovanni del Monte, from 1550 - Pope Julius III. It is situated on Via Flaminia road between the gate of Popolo, Bridge Mall, the Tiber and the hills of Parioli. Now, an exclusive area with private villas and mansions. Lively quarter of Parioli a diplomatic and financial center of Rome.
In Rome Polenov lived and worked in the autumn of 1894 - until the spring of 1895. Date suggests that the product was written in Russia, Roman sketches or sketches. We know the Italian landscapes, dating from 1896 (for example, open-air museum Polenova: "Venice").
Most likely, our work took place at the 25 th Exhibition TPHV (PA, MA 1897) with author name "near Rome (Monte Parioli)" and indicating - sold. Who sold, we do not know it is not known, and existence of the product before admission to the museum in 1920 Since work comes from the collection, PD Antipova, a friend of ED Polenova closely communicate with her in 1880, you can make the assumption that it could be bought for just Paraschiva Dmitryevna and her husband, with whom Vasily Polenov was familiar. At this time (1895-1898) Antipova lived in Moscow, having your own home at Spiridonovka, and in St. Petersburg.
On the flip side has an inscription of gray paint "№ 427" - perhaps, № in list Polenova at the Museum-Reserve Polenova, although it put rates of black paint.
The next undisputed product VD Polenova in the museum is a landscape "Genisaret (Tiberias) Lake /Genisaret Valley" (H., MA 72x127, 9).
The painting was donated in 1913 by the author of the Yaroslavl branch of social protection and preservation of Russian works of art and antiquities for future Town Art Gallery, for which the artist was elected an honorary member. This event is reflected in the letter D. Polenova to the museum from March 19, 1955: "I inform you some information about the paintings of my father, VDPolenov located in the Yaroslavl Regional Museum of Art:
May 19, 1913 Yaroslavl Division of the Society to protect and preserve the monuments of art and antiquities donated paintings for the Yaroslavl City Art Gallery.
February 4, 1914 Yaroslavl Division of the Society to protect and preserve monuments of Russian art and antiques chosen Vasily Dmitrievich Polenova honorary member. In the art gallery, established by the department, placed the picture VD Polenova: "Sea of Galilee" and "Genisaret Valley.
The last picture is one that is currently in your museum, entitled "Genisaret Lake ..." (in YAHM - CAP 42 (2)).
Yaroslavl Art Museum (Art Gallery) was established in December 1919, time of receipt of exhibits in the museum is the 1920 th year, and in 1921 made the first inventory of the paintings. But in all the inventory books mentioned various sources of this landscape Polenov. So, for 1921 - no data in the inventories of 1922 and 1923 - entering the Academy of Fine Arts in 1913, in the next book 1920. appears Yaroslavsky Front society of protection of monuments of art and antiquities, but without a year later in 1930-1940 - from the collection Antipova in 1920 in the last inventory - new record: a collection of Antipova in 1930!? Complete confusion, which was partially corrected in the Catalogue of the collection 1964, which we mentioned above - found at last, the correct source of income: Conservation Society and the year: 1920. In this case, the directory still does not include valuable information, the Artist's Son, DV Polenov, the gift of paintings to the Company by the author. No explanation for this, especially because of a similar transfer of the same society in 1914, works from the Museum of the Academy of Arts information is published.
Let us return to the product itself. Author's signature on the front side is missing, there is an inscription on the stretcher (no author) - VP, repeated 4 times. Nevertheless, the origin of painting is absolute proof of its affiliation brush Polenov. A vivid confirmation of this is the technical mastery of the work and painting techniques characteristic of works by masters, belonging to a series of trips to the East.
In "Genisaret Lake" with full force to discover the "purity and sonority of the picturesque palette Polenova appeared in his sketches first trip to the East in 1881-1882.
We present excerpts from the work of Ernest Renan's "Life of Jesus, who had previously Polenova in 1860 made a trip to the East to places associated with the life of Christ. His impressions of Lake Tiberias fully reflect the image that is then captured the artist in its landscape: the lake has an oval form, but forms, from Tiberias and the Jordan River to the mouth of a kind bay, bend which equals about 3 miles ... At the exit from Tiberias you see the first steep cliffs and the mountain, as if ready to collapse into the sea. Further, the mountain retreat, and nearly level with the lake open plain. This is a lovely, bright green grove, abundantly wrinkled waters ... Horizon dazzling light. Water color azure sky deeply cut into the scorching rocks, and if you look at them from the heights of the mountains of Safed, they seem like a golden pot at the bottom ... in the west of the high undulating plateau Gavlonitidy and Perea, completely barren, sun-swathed in some sort of velvety atmosphere, represented a continuous mountain or, rather, a high long terrace, Caesarea Philippi, stretching endlessly to the south. " (E. Renan. The life of Jesus. Moscow, 1991. Pp. 134-135).
Polenov, as we know, shared the opinion of Renan on the person of Christ, carried away by his works still in Paris in the years 1873-1876. and conceived his series of paintings on the themes of the gospel. To do this, and it took a trip to the East to gather material in the 1881-1882 and 1899.
Our landscape is a complete picture of self-written, most likely in Russia, travel sketches. Such a conclusion is due to the relatively large size of the canvas. Dating can be a 1880-mi and 1890 mi over the years, which does not contradict the nature of the technique and beautiful execution picture.
The catalogs of exhibitions (TPHV), where the dimensions are not specified, it is difficult to determine - whether our work was exhibited. Author's name, "Genisaret valley" allows you to emphasize several exhibitions, presenting paintings or sketches with a similar name and matching the image (on the left side of the lake is visible from the bay, the valley on the right, front high-shore /western /far-hill /eastern /) : - 1885 - 13th TPHV: "Sea of Galilee. Genisaret Gospel, or the Sea of Galilee." - 1900 - Paris World Exhibition: "Genisaret Valley. - 1903 - 1-I show sketches, drawings, sketches, TPHV, P.: "Sea of Galilee. Genisaret Valley," "Sea of Galilee. Bay near Tiberias," "Sea of Galilee. Distant mountains, etc. - 1903 - 31 - I show TPHV, MA: the same, and "Sea of Galilee. Genisaret Valley", etc. - 1913 - November - Exhibition of sketches, drawings, sketches, TPHV, M.: "The Lake and Valley Genisareta. Western Mountains (in catalog Western mountain lakes and valleys Genisaret), "The Sea of Galilee or Lake Tiberias.
But at the exhibition sketches, drawings, sketches TPHV, P., 1914, which is indicated in this work in our catalog (Wiley, 1964. S. 128) was not of works on the East.
Next, we turn to the sketches that all documents of the museum is named as "Roman Head" - the old pencil inscription on back "Rimlyanin" (H. C., m 21,6 x18, 1). Small size of the canvas, tight weave straight, with a thin light soil, deposited the factory method, pasted on cardboard, the edges of which plastered with paper. Canvas before gluing was trimmed so that the puncture can be seen only in the upper right corner. Painting is thin, the texture of the canvas is visible, the lower edge of the author neprokras. Smear caused by the form of a brush of small size.
On the obverse is the author's signature, monogram "EP" lettering which is similar to the original monogrammed Polenov. On the back of cardboard, canvas backup, as there is author stamped with a monogram.
Sketches of Roman Jews Polenov wrote for the painting "Christ and the Sinner" (1888. RM). Above them, he mainly worked in Rome from November 1883 to May 1884 letter from his wife Polenova to his sister Helen Dmitrievna we learn interesting details: "Basil is working with all his might, and it still is going well. Do it every day nature ... Vasily each day brings me to my studies ... Some of the head I really like, and how easy it is to get nature. Basil catches pass, and most readily comes and immediately understand what was going on ... "(Rome, February 22, 1884 //EV Sakharov. VD Polenov. E. Polenov. Chronicle of a family of artists. M. , 1964. S. 339).
In determining the date of execution of our sketch is necessary to clarify that denotes the number "69" right at the bottom of the canvas. It may not be the date (in 1869 the young artist was written by an academic program "Job and his friends", to reflect its student learning). And in this issue is important to view DV Polenov. Let us turn to his letter: "From the works of VD Polenova interest "Head of a Roman." Judging by the letter and monogram it - not an academic work, written much later, and the figure "69" at the bottom right, indicates the date when, in this time he was a student Academy of Fine Arts. " (December 26, 1954 //AT YAHM - CAP 42 (2)).
Sketch "Roman Head" is closest to the correlated product of the second Roman period of the artist and may date back 1883-1884 years. This conclusion corresponds to the style and scene, and technique, and the availability of copyright monograms and stamps, and technology. According to the testimony, EV Sakharov, at this time Polenov used to travel the pieces of canvas, which in return pasted on cardboard (Saharova. Ordinance. Op. S. 733). A number "69", thin brush (?) Looks more like an enumeration. For example, in one of the sketches of the head in 1884 (Voronezh Museum of Fine Arts) at the bottom left there is an inscription "134 Jew," which undoubtedly is the number of this work.
By undisputed pictures VD Polenova applies landscape "Early snow. Behovo" (H., MA 76x135, 3). It is written in medium-grained canvas of dense direct weaving factory production and the factory primer. Has the author's signature, along with the original painting and lying under the lacquer, as well similar to the original signatures of the artist.
Dating can be a product of about 1891, which is consistent with the character of his paintings, figurative and stylistic system. It is author-version of the same name by repeating the pattern in 1891, located in the Historic Area VD Polenov. This first sketch is now known to all the story was written by the artist in his new estate, built on a high bank of the Oka, from the upper windows of the old wing. In a letter to Konstantin Korovin on May 31, 1914 Polenov recalled this period: "The second time you come to us when we were in a small house in the old Behove ... it was autumn, october, the first snow fell, but it was warm. In the evening we stood at the open window. Suddenly Const [Antin] Alex [eevich] says: "In the Ravine should be a wolf" - gives a lingering note of wolfish voice - and that of the darkness came a prolonged, in the same note back. I'm so stunned ... "(Saharova. Ordinance. Op. S. 679).
About our paintings interesting quote from the same letters Dmitry V. Polenov. At first, it transmits information about the cases: "The painting" Winter Landscape "is called" Early Snow "repeated the author of 8 times in 1891. Of the 8 track one into thirds. Gal., One in Kiev gal. One in a private collection was exhibited in Moscow in 1950, one mine, one belongs to Ilya Repin, one in your museum. Please indicate whether on the back of the canvas number number 329, 341, 344 or 345, he put the number of black paint on the back of the picture "(February 11, 1951 //AT YAHM - CAP 42 (2)).
Indeed, a number - 329 - is available. On this occasion, DV Polenov wrote to the museum: "As for the" Early snow ", then there are several options, and one that you have the list of pictures of my father, compiled by himself, for some reason is marked as belonging to P. Tretyakov, although he also belonged to another option, which was held in the spring of 1954, was presented as a gift to the French artists, and existed in 1963 at the Tretyakov gallery, went to Paris. " (March 19, 1955 //AT YAHM - CAP 42 (2)).
Unfortunately, further study on the possible affiliation patterns at number 329 PM Tretyakov is not known. Because the letter D. Polenova in the originals with all the information we have learned recently (before this had only extracts from them) for us to remain current investigation into the "intrigue". Our landscape enrolled in 1927 from the museum's fund through the Moscow Rumyantsev Museum from the collection of the unknown out of the house (VO?) Hirschman. Previous existence is unknown. Standing on a stretcher stamp store in Moscow IO Avantso probably indicates the sale of the painting. Hypothetically, he could be collections of the Tretyakov!? But perhaps the list of artists crept error. Is this not confirmed by the fact that the number 329 was someone paid off and the same dark-red paint next to the other written - 501.
Next work of relevance to the VD Polenov and included in the above mentioned catalog 1964 - "Mr. Right" (H. m.. 125h177). Despite the fact that this large canvas is not cleared of contamination, is not restored and has not been investigated by us until the end, you must agree with the author of the catalog, defining it as a copy by an unknown artist with the same title picture VD Polenov, 1874, located in the State Tretyakov Gallery.
These data were obtained from D. Polenova from his correspondence with the museum in 1954 are extracts from the letters. November 22, he asked: "Painting VDPolenov" Right the first night, which I think is a copy because he reps it did, too, came from the collection of Antipov? ". December 3 continued the theme: "Regarding the author's copy of the painting" The right of first night "can not say anything, the more that I never saw her again. It is interesting to look at least on a photograph." And December 26, replied in the affirmative: "The right of first night" - certainly a copy and is not particularly good (in b /w photos. All the letters: AT YAHM - CAP 42 (2)).
State of the canvas and painting allow us to date copy of the last quarter of XIX - beginning XX centuries. That is confirmed by the time of its possible establishment - between 1874 (the appearance of the original Polenova) and 1920
This year, or slightly later painting, as we assume, came to the museum.
October 12, 2009