Examination of works of Russian and foreign painting and graphics XVI-XX centuries.
On methods of studying the works of art and the classification of secondary works in the department of scientific expertise
AR Kiseleva (Senior Research Officer GRC them. Igor Grabar).
The basis of the expert is to conduct a comprehensive iconographic, stylistic, technical and technological expertise of Russian and foreign painting and graphics XVI-XX centuries.
During the existence of his co-workers developed a method for comprehensive analysis of the works, collections of standards, as the replenishment of the experts whose conclusions about individual handwriting traits of artists and is constantly refined technological features that are characteristic for individual schools of painting from different periods.
To date, assembled an extensive bank of reference data, including the collection:
- Samples of canvas and paper;
- Macro texture painting;
- Microsamples of soil and layers of paint;
- Documentary photographs in the visible, infrared, ultraviolet and X-ray spectra of radiation;
- Descriptions of the results of iconographic and stylistic analysis, as well as visual and microscopic observations of technical and technological characteristics of products.
These data form the basis for a comparative analysis of works of art.
The main tasks of scientific expertise include:
- The question of authorship (the establishment, confirmation or rejection of authorship);
- Dating works;
- Definition of school of painting;
- Determination of the iconography of the work;
- The question of the originality or derivative works;
- Delineation of the type of the secondary (copy, author or co-authorship repetition, belonging to the workshop, a circle, school, or follower of the wizard, imitation, forgery, pastiche);
- Determination of the state of preservation;
- Determination of the artistic level of the work.
Iconographic (genre-plot) and stylistic (composition, of color, black and white, linear-plastic and so forth) analysis suggests the authorship, creation time, a school of painting.
For the final tasks required technological expertise arguments.
The main technical and technological research include:
I. Microscopic analysis.
II. Research in the UV radiation.
III. Research in IR radiation.
IV. X-ray analysis.
V. Analysis of texture painting surface.
VI. Analysis of the chemical composition of the painting materials.
Features of these types of studies: I. Minute analysis
One of the most informative examination of works of art you can:
- More accurately determine the condition of the product;
- To conclude that the method of application signature;
-Assume the approximate dating of the work on the picturesque materials, technical characteristics causing soil and the construction of the paint layer;
- Set the technological features of originality, or derivative works;
- To address the question of authorship to correlate the results of microscopic research work with the bank of reference data on the technology of paintings of the artist intended.
1. Microscopic analysis allows us to identify as precisely as possible the degree of restoration interventions, in particular, recognize the old toning and records that are not detected in the UV rays because of the varnish layers. Only in the study under a microscope you can see the restoration of toning and records differ from the author of the layer on the composition of pigments, degree of transparency and the relief of occurrence, but it almost caught up with him in the transparency are close in color and sometimes have already shared with him craquelure. Their X-ray density often does not provide the contrast, therefore, to identify them on the radiograph as difficult as in the UV rays.
2. Investigation under the microscope to determine method of fixing the signature, since only under high magnification one can see subtle nuances of its occurrence and determine whether it was written simultaneously with a colorful layer or made later on craquelure, dirt, abrasions, restoration.
Even without the author's signature can be so long, partially acquire craquelure, shared with the author's paintings.
The method for applying the signature is most important, as the mark of an autograph can skillfully faked. The task of identifying the signature is greatly simplified if it is made: a) raw, b) rare pigment layer, c) the same paste, which paint a picture.
3. Microscopic examination allows the estimated date the picture on the basis of an analysis of its structure, pigment composition and methods of construction painting. Knowledge of the canvas, soil, composition, kneading and grinding of pigments, as well as the range of application-specific painting materials and techniques for building layers of paint give the opportunity to put the supposed dating. The most objective conclusion about the time of creation of the work being done in conjunction with the results of iconographic, stylistic and chemical analysis.
4. Microscopic analysis helps to establish a secondary works, technological feature which in some cases may be a lack podmalevka.
5. In addressing the question of authorship is taken into account the full range of research, in which microscopic analysis plays an important role. The study of soil composition and ratio of pigments, the sequencing of construction of fine detail (for example, the sequence of completion of elements of the person, clothing or accessories, etc.), especially the construction of layers of paint gives an idea of painting materials and techniques for a specific author. A detailed engineering study patterns enables comparison with the general features of time given to the characteristics peculiar to the individual style of the artist.
It is very important that the microscopic analysis is the express method of technological expertise, which results in conjunction with the iconographic and stylistic analysis can either directly address the question of the establishment, school of painting and original paintings, or, in dealing with the authorship and the difficulty in dating, further outlook studies.
II. Research in the UV radiation
UV rays, acting on now, let us see any integral glow paint, paint layer and ground, or each component in the open areas of ground and paint layer, which enables:
- Get some information about the state of conservation works (loss and restoration intervention);
- Identify extinguished inscriptions and signatures made gallic ink, mercury and iron-containing pigment;
- Identify some dating pigments (eg zinc oxide);
- Obtain information about the depth of the signature (under the varnish, lacquer between layers, on top of paint, on the loss, the restoration).
The results verified the results of microscope analysis, as defined in the UV rays of the pigments - the results of the analysis of the chemical composition of samples.
The main qualitative characteristics of the visible luminescence under UV irradiation are brightness, color, density, uniformity of the emission surface of the painting, as well as the presence of dark areas, indicating the existing restoration, pollution or the lack of lacquer film.
If necessary photo-painting under ultraviolet irradiation.
III. Research in the IR radiation
The study is carried out using an electron-optical converter, transforming the IR image in the visible, allowing:
- See the underlying painting (compositional changes or correspondence);
- Recognize a colorful layer of preparatory drawing and large-scale grid, if available;
- To reveal the inscription and signature, caused by carbon materials;
- Identify extinguished inscriptions and signatures;
- To determine surface and deep restoration intervention.
For the infrared rays are transparent varnish, contamination, thin layers of painting. In the heat rays revealed a well-soot, charcoal, pencil, ink and other carbonaceous materials.
The most important information can be obtained in the study of the preparatory drawing, which is a hidden technological copyright sign. Drawing free, with corrections and compositional changes, as a rule, evidence of originality of work. Figure hard, with the depiction of light and shade boundaries and contours most points in the secondary pattern. In some cases the presence of a large-scale grid can also point to the secondary works.
Identifying individual characteristics of a specific pattern masters and their comparison with the reference number - one of the essential tools expertise in dealing with the issue of inventorship.
IV. X-ray analysis
The study enables:
- To determine the condition of the product (the loss, restoration intervention, signs of re-based);
- See the underlying image, as well as edits and changes the composition;
- Identify some beautiful material;
- See the individual copyright application methods of soil (in some cases), construction of the paint layer and the nature of the stroke in the modeling of forms.
In the analysis of X-ray principal qualitative characteristics are readable image, the degree of contrast of black and white building, detection and shape of individual strokes.
Readability image due to the peculiarities of the basis, the composition of the soil and colorful pastes, thickness and quantity of ground and paint layers, the modeling techniques and forms of the type used brushes, as well as the presence of restoration interventions. X-ray analysis plays an important role in deciding the time of creating the painting, school of painting and works of authorship.
V. Analysis of texture painting surface
Research carried out visually by caring, under the microscope and allows you to:
- Obtain information about the state of preservation;
- Identify the individual handwriting characteristics of the author and general symptoms characteristic of the artists a certain time and schools;
- To see the techniques and the sequence of building painted surface;
- Obtain information about art materials and techniques of painting.
Macro texture painting and radiographs provide important information about individual handwriting techniques the author.
Important quality parameters in the analysis of surface texture are the basis of the ratio, soil, paint and varnish layers, the techniques of building painting, body paint, the configuration of the stroke, type craquelure, features art materials, etc.
Interpreting the results of the analysis fakturopostroeniya helps resolve the question of authorship, authenticity, since the establishment of a work, school of painting.
VI. Analysis of the chemical composition of the painting materials
Results of chemical analysis:
- Have information on the creation of the work;
- Contain some information about individual techniques of the artist and used by a scenic materials.
Data obtained in the process of integrated assessment, compared with the reference material, and then to draw definitive conclusions about authorship, creation time, the school of painting, etc.
One important issue is the examination of the classification of works. They may be original or secondary, which in turn are subdivided into several types. Certain types of secondary works contain similar stylistic and technological features, and therefore their distinction in some cases is a rather difficult task. This scheme classifies the secondary works and indicates the types (arrows in opposite directions), representing some difficulty in distinguishing. (This scheme is drawn from studies of sufficiently large number of secondary Dutch and Flemish paintings XVII-XIX centuries.)
Secondary works are divided into copies, author repetition, repetition and imitation, joint authorship, which include simulation, styling, studio work, school, circle, a follower of the wizard and forgery. Fakes with a signature, are unintentional and intentional, and divided into three types (see diagram): a) style, b) stylistic and technological (the XIX century), c) stylistic and technological imitation signs of aging and /or restoration (approximately from mid-XIX century). The picture that has no signature, can be attributed to fraud in the case when it was created, along with the style has been imitated by technology known master and /or simulate symptoms of aging and restoration. Types of fraud, lining up at the time of creation, the differences are related to the level of knowledge in the history of painting techniques.
Despite the fact that accurate and complete definition of the types of secondary works to be difficult, since even the original works may be mimicking nature, we formulate some of them.
Imitation. (The most typical of the XVIII century) painting, written in imitation of some models, incorporating elements of copying and compiling, interpreted in accordance with the aesthetics of his time, created the technology of his time and usually has a signature.
Pastiche. (The most typical of the XIX century) works made by the technology of its time, usually without the use of elements of the copy or compilation, is a retrospective embodiment of the theme (motive), taken from the past and transformed into a new image-plastic model, and in some cases imitation of the old masters.
Originally unsigned picture by any artist, for similar iconographic and stylistic characteristics with time to be a painting of another (usually larger), the artist and in some cases, signed his name.
This type of paintings can be classified as an original work, and imitation, style, and a copy of a work shop, school, circle, a follower of a master. To gain a picture of their true status false signature should be removed.
The painting, created in the style of the author counterfeited, often with an imitation of painting technology and the use of similar composition ink paste, sometimes with imitation signs of aging and restoration, as a rule, which has a signature, a modern pigment layer.
Copies of the author and repetition, in our opinion, in special formulations do not need.
Differentiation patterns on the basis of originality and the secondary and the definition of type is secondary, as all the other tasks of scientific expertise, are solved with the help of technical and technological, historical and art history studies, which represent a reliable research method.
Anna Kiseleva Rudolfovna -
Head of Department examination, leading researcher GRC them. Igor Grabar. Specializes in the XVIII century Russian and Western European paintings.
Member of Russian and international conferences (the Louvre, Leiden University).
He has over twenty publications on assessment, attribution and technological research methods.
Эти 13 пользователя(ей) сказали Спасибо Евгений за это полезное сообщение:
The list of experts is formed on the basis of analysis of expert opinions on cultural values, issued in recent years, as well as the results of a survey conducted among the biggest collectors of Russian and Western European art. As the author writes in the preface, the publication is not an exhaustive study of the issue and was informative. In his view, the most authoritative experts, who should be trusted to include the total of 24 experts, 11 of them specialize in Russian art, the most controversial sector of the Russian antiques market, which in recent years been associated not a scandal. In most all experts - the museum workers. Three of them are also included in the list of experts accredited by the Confederation of antiquarians and art dealers.
Friends who read the book? Write a few words ...
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Eugene, Constantine, Cyril Syzranskiy! Circulate it for a fee audit company))) This monograph, the author Tamoykin. I found this version of the Internet, cite. The most interesting is that the method of thermal power plants is proposed as a guide to action experts of the Moscow museums. I would like to hear your professional opinion. Maybe someone from the members of the forum has encountered TESom, waiting for information. Thank you
"Кисть, рука и палитра нужны, чтобы рисовать, но картина создаётся вовсе не ими. Пользуются красками, но пишут чувствами."
Firebird, I estimate the value of cultural property in the examinations encounter only in cases where the expert gives an opinion for bodies Rosokhrankultura for subsequent issuance of permits for export. Perhaps you refer to them and the method will be interesting, do not know.
Эти 3 пользователя(ей) сказали Спасибо Кирилл Сызранский за это полезное сообщение:
Somewhere at the top of the table is the concept:
- SM cost of materials (?)
This point I do not understand. What materials? Canvas, paint? All prices are when the picture or COP (cultural values) created?
- CT value of labor (?)
Whose work? Artist? Rubens or Malevich, for example (obviously there are tariffs)? Or the painter is able to paint roller size 1x1 m.?
Эти 7 пользователя(ей) сказали Спасибо Konstantin за это полезное сообщение:
Interesting information on the forum on the attribution of paintings by Repin IE
For it is often treated auction houses in Finland, Sweden, England, for expert assessment of a product Repin. An important feature of the examination of Repin is dating, especially his early works. Thus, the author's dating, which is usually valid grounds dating of art, with expert analysis of works of Repin should be subjected to scrutiny. Thus, on the basis of historical and archival and stylistic analysis of EV Kirillin identified erroneous cases dating Repin's own early works, including from the Tretyakov Gallery. [/QUOTE]
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Vladimir Petrov about fakes in the Russian art market ..
Interview of a little old, but there is useful information for novice collectors. (EA)
(Interview T. Markina)
And admitted, and that itself gave a positive opinion on such work.
- I just started to talk of it - and of course, from their mistakes, but how else? I did not start with the fact that almost the majority of these works, as well as many other forgeries had by that time, when I watched the examination of the Tretyakov Gallery and other museums and organizations, sometimes several at once. Now I have picked up some materials for 130 pseudo-works, with their actual authorship, origin and the original price. In fact, I do that, thank God, found only about 20 of its errors of this kind, although not rule out that there are more, and among them there is no Korovins nor Aivazovsky. - Who are fake?
Landscapes, still lifes, portraits, genre scenes, interiors, nude. Until that historic picture of the life of the Vikings to be works of Sergei Gribkova in ancient story. Alexey Bogolyubov and Lev Lagorio - in many - from the British, German and Scandinavian marine painters. And there is already one of the first pages of such a thing. This unnoticed?
Then the joint severe pollution and a special lacquer, which quickly gives a crack. And under the microscope signature looks like an old.
And then, there is a variety of approaches. Provenance falsify - write any accompanying picture of the paper, on the back of strong inscriptions. Postcard worn, yellow. I overstrain her - she is inside is completely white, new. And all this is simulated.
- And they all can be discerned? If for all these technical matches and tweaks technological examination gives nothing?
- Can. After examination consists not only of technology. Technology, as a blood test, only an aid to the diagnostician. Technological scheme - canvas, the nature of soil, drawing palette, general methods of constructing the paint layer is very similar in many artists, especially - academics XIX century that the German, that the Danish, that Russian. Radiograph is not always without a range of other studies, may give the correct result. For pictures Levitan, for example, is characterized by several types of radiographs. So if you rely only on it, all our Surykova have a museum pass. But some artists - such as Kuindzhi and Vasily Vereshchagin - almost all are signed, and signature on any etude not so much convincing as alarming.
And then you will not make mistakes such as those admitted and when I saw some work only in the field of the history of Russian landscape painting, which I know very well, and which is really just a designated signature on bogus artist, for example, Schultze and Schilder, very similar some of the Scandinavians, could write such a picture. - But this means that the counterfeiters are very educated people, very knowledgeable and Russian, and German, and Danish art.
- I think it makes people very familiar with the history of art and, so to speak, is not alien to the art-restoration and the museum environment. Some forgeries are created with great flair. The artist was staying at the estate near Chernigov - few people do know about this, so also the inscription was obviously copied from one job Makovsky of the funds of the Russian Museum!
- Have there been cases of such fraud in the history of the art market?
- The very situation that has provoked an extraordinary game. What would give the French for the English or vice versa? For the first time in the national market national artists in a hundred times more expensive than the foreign masters of the same school and age. It must be emphasized that not all the artists whose pictures are used as the basis for a fake, weak and little known. Some used the Danish, German, Czech (Adolf Praise) and Hungarian (Aurel Naray) artists are highly esteemed in his homeland, sometimes, like the Danes and Aagaard Myulsted (not to be confused with Myunstedom also very prominent Danish landscapes, not just Or, for example, Louis Gurlitt, a Danish-German artist, classic late Biedermeier. He is very well known in his homeland, but in France and England, it is unlikely to buy. Therefore, it is inexpensive. And our customers sweep all that with a Russian name. Converted it into a hierarchy - and the price jumped almost 50 times. Or did some of William Porsta Russian Fyodor Vasilyev - and the price rose from € 1 thousand, for which this same William sold in Munich in 2003, to € 300 thousand
For the first time schemers behave with such disrespect for art. A painter Alexei Trankovsky, unprofessional, but distinctive. This is not just a scam, it is murder names.
I studied the history of Russian landscape painting of the XIX century, including painters circle of Moscow Society of Art Lovers and the Moscow Association of Artists. They had more than one hundred masters, who were grouped around Savrasov Polenov, Levitan, and to imitate them. Many members were in the St. Petersburg Society of Artists (range Konstantin Makovsky). Yes, some of these are not too well-known artists have come to the market. But what happened to the others? They were very prolific, but Levin - Levitan, and Yartsev or Zaretsky - Polenov. In the Soviet era fakes, too lacking. But there was some measure. Last year, I was terrified for the fate of art. I know that pictures of these artists were, but now they are not. - But this year established the Association of antiquarians and art dealers with a strict code of ethics, the guild of experts, where you enter. Rosokhrankultura plans to introduce compulsory certification of experts.
- I am a pessimist. Over all this is a social situation, all have a piece, all conveniently. A meeting of the Guild of Experts, which I occasionally participate, become tyagomotnuyu chatter. In the early 1990's, when negotiated and adopted the law on import-export, I wrote a draft, how to rebuild the Institute examinations, certify experts. Then there was the problem of dirty money and conscience, and restructuring was indeed possible. Then we, the experts happy to go to each other at home, sharing information, conducting joint attribution advice, arguing about the truth. Now this speech is not.
- So what can we do? How to fix what is happening on the art market? Yes, and Northern Europe on top.
- The situation really can change only with society, with social changes. If you exaggerate a little, pereatributsiya these things is possible only after the nationalization and redistribution of property for all of rubles. Bring all these paintings in a museum, and an independent, honest and knowledgeable critic as much as possible to restore the truth, but at the same time and clear away the rubble accumulated foreign material information technology, a reference base of the Tretyakov Gallery and others. Only then it can be corrected. In the meantime, collectors collect abandoned art. And corporations, too - bought fakes at one time, now put in the closet, well, everything, they say, the Sabbath, no longer want.