Старый 25.06.2008, 17:21 Язык оригинала: Русский       #1
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По умолчанию Very brief history of forgery



Here is the translation of the first part of a sketch of Adrian Darmon.
Continuation may follow - if there is interest - and maybe not - if boring, as you say
Please ignore the typos, reluctance to read, put the "raw" translation.

Art forgery traces its history from ancient times, when art, especially religious, took Double-role in society. It all started with borrowing methods of production, then - the stylistic characteristics of the subjects. Artists and artisans of Egypt, began to make copies and export them, that did not stop and neighboring nations to copy examples of Egyptian art. Based in Alexandria, the Greeks quickly began the production of such copies.

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Many of the masterpieces of ancient Greek art began in Rome as a canon of beauty. Respectively, from their exported from Greece, and then copied. However, the rich patricians necessarily want to buy their works of art were genuine. Then the traders, not too tortured by remorse, found a way to get rich quickly by bringing the production of copies, which they passed off as originals and sold to unsophisticated clients. They were assisted in this dishonest, but profitable to the artists. Production of forgery in Antiquity ended with the invasion of barbarians destroyed works throughout the territory of Rome.

Christianity is primarily interested in the religious side of art, and VI of XIV century in Europe, forged only relics of saints and relics, such as the Turin Shroud, which has long been regarded as the true shroud of Christ. Its technical and technological expertise has shown that it was done in the XIII century.

Now pointeresuemsya difference between a copy and counterfeit. Any copy is not a forgery. In order to learn the technique, the artists imitated his predecessors, celebrated masters of the past, and, above all, the ancient monuments. However, over time, art lovers and dealers began to accept these copies, remarkably made great artist for the original antique art.

Sometimes the artist gave her a copy of the original, to prove that he is not inferior to the great skill of the architects of the past. Thus Mikelanzhdelo carved statue, which he sold to Cardinal, give her a Roman script. Upon learning that he had been deceived, in a fit of anger, Cardinal destroyed it. Many artists of the XVII century were the monarchs of their copies to get their protection, so, Velazquez and Le Brann used this trick in the beginning of his career.

Doing "educational" copies, the artists had fun, passing them off as originals - Rafael manufactured as false Perugino, brushes Delacroix owned Dreams, Watteau, Velasquez and Rubens, Van Dyck also fabricated by Rubens.
Thus, as the art of managing the church, counterfeiting was a little, but as soon as the powers that be have to collect works of art, the number of counterfeits immediately increased.

However, this flowering of art forgery is observed at the beginning of the XIX century, with the advent of industrial society. Been re-opened the great masters of the XVIII century - Watteau, Fragonard, Boucher, Reynolds and Gainsborough, and the artists of the "second rank" to take up production of copies and imitations of these artists included in vogue. Later, these imitations have been taken for originals.

Fashion on trips to Europe, introduced by the English aristocracy, also played a role: Italian antiquarians considered it their duty to satisfy the aspirations of the many "tourist-class" to purchase a painting or sculpture, old masters, so that the production of counterfeit straightened.

In France, the fashion for Gothic with a light hand Viollet-le Duc spawned numerous fake Limoges enamels. Much Ado caused a history of the Louvre, who bought a gold tiara, supposedly a Scythian origin, which is not long before one has made iskustny Russia jeweler. This tiara was sold to the Louvre two Romanian swindlers, brothers, Hohmann, and on display visitors on 1 April 1887 (symptomatic date!), But will soon have expressed their doubts about its authenticity, since the reliefs on it were in very good condition - as if they were made yesterday, not 23 centuries ago! Conservative Munich museum, prevedshy examination, said that it is a montage of ancient elements of different origin. It produced an investigation that revealed in Ochakov workshop production of fakes, owned by brothers Hohmann, and later a jeweler - a competitor of our hapless poddelschika - gave his interrogators. However, these latter do not believe that he really created this tiara, and resentful poddelschik arrived in Paris, where the eyes of the astonished staff of the Louvre repeated his work.

In 1873 the brothers fabricated Penelli Etruscan sarcophagus. They buried him, and then "Open." He had such a "real" view that the British Museum bought it. The sarcophagus that was considered one of the most remarkable objects of Etruscan art up until one of the brothers-poddelschikov, tormented by remorse, did not admit fraud.

The success of such artists as Corot, led to an increase in the number of copies of their pictures. It should be noted that Corot, for instance, did not annoy the emergence of numerous imitators, on the contrary, he invited them to his studio, gave them valuable advice and even put on their works of his signature!

Another artist who was very much forged, was Monticelli.

In the late 70-ies of the XIX century there were art dealers, keen modernism or just the sensory benefits - Durand-Ruel, Vildenshtayn, seligmannite, Ruar and others - as well as collectors, have virtually unlimited capital. Rothschild, Pyrmont, Morgan, as well as Russian merchants have become interested in the works of Monet, Manet, Pissarro, Renoir. But this wave of fraud began during the First World War: the German occupying army officers have been sold thousands of counterfeit Corot (not less than 10000), made in the workshops of counterfeits in Brussels. Established and the first forgery and postimpresionizma impressionist masters from Cezanne to Van Gogh. Vlaminck, who later became a famous painter in his youth forge Corot and Cezanne, to ensure their suschestvovvanie.

By 20 th year prices for Van Gogh, famous for 15 years from now after his death, grew rapidly, and the complete catalog of his works was still in the drafting phase, so the Van Gogh interested poddelschikov. The clientele at this time greatly expanded, and many of the marshal, including the very famous, such as Lord Dyuvin, could not resist the temptation to sell counterfeit iskustno Van Gogh rich, but not versed in the art of customers.

Golden Age poddelschikov occurred in 1925, and not just in painting - furniture XVIII century was produced in the workshops Andre Mayfera in Orleans, and then sold as genuine. Mayfer himself was not involved in the marketing of these fabrications of very high quality, but never challenged the "authenticity" of items, made in his workshop.

In early 1930, Hans van Henricus Meygeren, Netherlandish artist, angered critics, did not give proper attention to his talent, has begun a thorough study of the great Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675). Art historians at that time knew no more than his 40 works. And Meygeren decided to "recreate" the lost work of Vermeer of Delft, the plot of the majority of whom wore a religious character.

Meygeren, restorer and teacher of painting, with extensive knowledge of technology and iconography of Vermeer. He realized he could use the fact that Vermeer was "discovered" only in the middle of the XIX century and most poorly understood (his first retrospective exhibition held at the Museum of Rotterdam only in 1935). Two years Meygeren held in Provence, carefully studying the techniques of Vermeer, and even after 2 years he took off the paint layer of a painting of XVII century and wrote on it "Emmaus pilgrims", and then presented his work to the expert Brediusu Abraham, who had come to a complete delight at the sight of this unknown masterpiece.

This forgery was purchased by the Royal Gallery in Rotterdam over 500,000 guilders, and Meygeren, hopeful his first success, started to "reconstruct" the other Vermeer, in particular, the paintings, "Jacob, Isaac's Blessing," "Jesus and the woman caught in adultery", etc. . During the German occupation appeared "Washerwoman" and "washing of the feet, which was sold at auction for 1.25 million guilders.

Troubles wartime Meygerenu helped in his business. Despite the fact that many experts were perplexed, noting the miraculous appearance on the market, so many lost Vermeer, and wondered about their origin, had to wait until Germany's defeat to the Netherlands authorities compiled a list of works of art, taken out by the Nazis, which found that "Jesus and the woman found guilty of adultery "and has not less than 4 paintings attributed to Vermeer, were sold to Goering and other Nazi dignitaries.
Arrested for collaboration, since he sold the enemies of national treasures, Meygerenu had to justify this accusation, which he did, confessing that he sold the Germans counterfeiting, which he produced himself. He told investigators that he wrote them on canvas XVII century, using the same pigments that Vermeer himself, but for "sostarivaniya" they used the oven.

But no one believed him, and, as proof of his allegations, he invited the judges to make a "Vermeer" in the presence of two experts, and that was done - so was written by Jesus, preached in the church, which now seems quite awkward.

Search made in his studio in Nice, allowed to find pigments, similar to those used by Vermeer, and one unfinished painting, which depicts a woman reading a letter. Meygerena sentenced to 1 st year in prison, where he died of a heart attack on 31 th October 1947

Nevertheless, his dazzling victory - he managed to fool the critics and get them to recognize his talent. In addition, the scandal, which was the basis of this history, served as a terrible advertisement for the Vermeer, whose quotation is rapidly soared. On the other hand, he sowed panic among conservatives museums, which began to doubt the authenticity of Vermeer, who were in their collections. As a result, pictures, previously considered to be owned by Vermeer's hand, like, "Girl in front virginalom", was filmed attribution. In 1993, she was transferred to the expertise of Sotheby's, and it took at least 10 years of analysis and to verify its authenticity. Then it was restored, and in 2003 sold more than 24 million euros.

One might think that if Meygeren was operating in a time when the art market has become much more mature, and methods of analysis - more advanced, he would not have been as a professional.

However, poddelschiki that operate in our time, have found other loopholes that allow them to mislead experts and art lovers. For example, the Englishman John Kokkett acting also under the name of John Dryu, in 1985, took advantage of the talent unrecognized artist John Mayatta, who wrote 2 pictures signed by Ben Nicholson and be genuine. John Kokkettu came to mind a great idea: first, to get from his friends, well known in the art market, proof that these works belong to them, and, secondly, to make a false letter from counterfeit art. In addition, John Kokkett received permission to view the archives of various museums, such as the Tate Galleries in London and the Courtauld Institute of Contemporary Art, which had lists of works of Nicholson, has found a way to make these lists made his request forgeries. He was arrested in 1999 and sentenced to 6-years in prison. After 2 years of his prematurely released.


In the late 1960's appeared on the scene of another poddelschik - Elmira de Hori, of Hungarian origin, who sold a lot of fakes in the United States about the mediation of former ballet dancer Fernand Legros, who had no his rivals in the inflation of the rich fool.

Elmir de Hori, who was born in 1905 in Hungary and lived on the island of Ibiza, the recipient of numerous aliases - Elmira von Khoury, Baron Elmir Hoffmann, Joseph Dori, Joseph Dori-Butin, etc. - Played the role of the mysterious character, a wealthy aristocrat in exile.

He rented a luxury villa on the island and organized secular evening, which could meet all the cream of society. With all their potential victims Hori explained that all his money invested in art, and that his friends - Salvador Dali and other famous people. So he getting on Ibiza in the sun without a care, until the scandal broke in the process of Fernand Legros and his heart other realities Lessard, accused the United States that they had sold dozens of fake paintings by contemporary artists, Texas oil magnate Alguru Hartley Meadows.

Sam Hori, genuinely fond of art, had a golden youth in Budapest. At age 18 he decided to study art - first in Munich and then, in the years 1926-1932. In Paris in the studio of Fernand Leger, but received no recognition. At the end of World War II, all the property his family had been selected by the Hungarian Communist authorities, and this esthete, sybaritic homosexual and was forced to find a way to ensure its existence.

Based in Paris, he began to forge a well-known artists - Picasso, Matisse, Modigliani - and sell them as naive and ignorant fans of the beautiful. Gradually he has to establish contacts with galleries around the world. The first time he was burnt when a gallery owner in Los Angeles led him to clean water and threatened to report it to the police.
Frightened by the threat of arrest and imprisonment, Hori stopped their lucrative but dangerous activity. In desperation he even tried to commit suicide, but in 1958, without knowing it, he concluded an alliance with the devil, taking care of Fernand Legros, a 27-year-old dancer pretending to be a curator, a rotating international secular circles.
Apparently, Hori came under the influence of the eccentric character in dark glasses, hung with jewels and wrapped in fur. Legros managed to flatter Hori, assuring him that he is a great artist, and persuaded him to again take up the forgery.

Now we need to find clients. Legros went to the United States. On the border of the U.S. Customs asked him what he is lucky, he replied that he had in his suitcases are copies of paintings by famous artists. Suspicious customs cause of experts who unanimously declare that it is - not copies, but very real originals. Legros pays quite a large fine, but gets a customs declaration, which is written in black and white, that all his paintings - the originals!

Meanwhile, Hori moved to Ibiza, he believes Legros - not without reason - a swindler and crook, but, nevertheless, continues to work at it, revising their forgery in the United States. Legros forced to use the services already mentioned Lessard, as well as other poddelschika - Marture. Both of them provide its products for sale.

And Legros found the perfect victim in the face Algura Hartle Meadows, who bought him for about 40 of forgeries, signed by Modigliani, Derain, Picasso and Dufy. Moreover Legros managed to convince many French experts and assigns artists to give him a certificate of authenticity, not asking questions about the authenticity of the actual paintings, which they showed.

In the end, Meadows persuaded that he was the victim of a swindler, and he sued the Legros, who was arrested after a long investigation, which became press lure. However, it fell Hori and Lessard, and the actors of the art market once again fell into a panic, knowing that hundreds and perhaps thousands of counterfeits are circulating in the United States, a country overflowing with ignorant and rich buyers of works of art. However, the deceived buyers of fakes have been in court numerous - many of them chose not to become a laughingstock.

In 1976, writing his memoirs, for which director Francois Reshenbah put the film and causing admiration for Orson Welles, who considered him "poddelschikom century, Hori committed suicide. In 1979 Legros was sentenced to 2-m-year prison term and this was covered in pre-trial detention, but the inveterate smoker long enjoyed any newfound freedom, nor the generous help of Onassis's daughter - he died of throat cancer in April 1983

Real Lessard, who moved to Morocco, wrote a book, which described the many picturesque scenes. Finally, Mature in 2003, also published his book in which he admitted that he fed Legros fakes.



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Старый 25.06.2008, 18:14 Язык оригинала: Русский       #2
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LCR, thank you very much for interesting material)) The people in my person is required to continue)))



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Старый 25.06.2008, 19:00 Язык оригинала: Русский       #3
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LCR, thank you very much for interesting material)) The people in my person requires continued )))
I join.



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Старый 25.06.2008, 19:15 Язык оригинала: Русский       #4
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LCR, much-esteemed LCR, thank you, very interesting and useful material. I think it would be right to publish it on this site as an article would be a pity if he eventually lost in the bowels of the forum.
I think the administration of the site will thank you. Just do not forget to include a reference to pervoistoichnik, and continue, continue ...



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Старый 25.06.2008, 23:50 Язык оригинала: Русский       #5
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So, he continued:

Another ingenious counterfeiters who were caught in the trap which many art lovers, especially in the United States was David Stein, but he was eventually arrested, too, after Marc Chagall accidentally saw a fake, exhibited in the window of a gallery owner. Stein's name was on the front pages of all newspapers, and, paradoxically, it helped him earn a living after the scandal, selling them has produced the official "copies.

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It is difficult to understand the motives of manufacturers forgeries, the more that these people are very different psychological warehouse. Some people go to it for the pleasure to deceive the expert or gallerist, others see this as a way to earn, the third is simply entertaining ...

One poddelschikov, who was nicknamed "facsimile" phenomenal simulator still lifes XVII century, created them in 1980. just for fun, that did not prevent some Parisian experts acknowledge its products are originals.

After working for a fair time for the public service restorer of monuments of history and art, Facsimile acquired a comprehensive knowledge of pigments used by artists of the XVII century. Besides his work gave him the opportunity to examine in detail the product stored in museum collections.

To create their simulation, incredibly close to the originals, he could only find an adequate foundation, canvas, or a brass plaque correct era. He began to sell their copies of fans, but one day, gallery owners saw them and decided that these products simply can not be authenticated! Gradually, some copies have been attributed as the originals, gallery owners and threw them to the manufacturer's orders on the still lifes, which could be attributed to the great French, Dutch and Flemish painters. About 40 of his works have received certificates of authenticity, facsimile and, feeling that danger is approaching, I decided it was time to say goodbye to their customers and to move from Paris to some place where the air is fresh and breathe easier.

In general, the art of forgery remarkably quickly evolved when he began to grow rapidly the Art Market, in 1970-ies. Until then, this market was fairly limited, and Paris topped the sales at public auction. The situation changed rapidly, when the Anglo-Saxon auction houses began to use modern marketing methods to attract new customers. Economic expansion has favored the emergence of new buyers, who yearned to make his own collection.

When prices for Impressionist and modern art began to skyrocket, the United States has become an ideal breeding ground for counterfeiters.

In New York and Chicago, Los Angeles and Dallas opened the gallery to meet the needs of new customers. However, not without problems, the most important of which is that the experts on the most requested artist for the most part were not the Americans and the French, and that buying paintings, fans failed to take basic precautions - they do not deem it necessary to verify the validity of certificates accompanying these pictures, certificates for some of the works were signed by the experts, had no authority, there were collectors, who bought the product in general, without any certificate.

The owners of the many galleries do not hesitate to sell questionable things, issuing a certificate, signed by themselves and do not have any value. In this context, Legros quickly realized, as can be learned from this situation, profit, emissions on the U.S. market, hundreds of imitations.

At the same time, it would be unfair to blame the Americans, since long before the formation of the American market well-known Parisian collector Duray was the victim of many thieves. After his death, his heirs were astonished to realize that in his magnificent collection of impressionists and others had a large number of fakes.

Thus, the art market has reached maturity, became the target of two types of fraud - theft and fraud, and the number of such actions to increase rapidly throughout the western world. Clever Eastern Europeans soon realized that the production of counterfeit works of artists in great demand in Europe and the United States may be the business very profitable. Thus, since 1970. They began to produce the early works of artists who emigrated to the West, such as Chagall and Lissitzky, and Suprematist or constructivist canvases of famous Russian artists. Even before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the West was an orgy of counterfeit Malevich, Goncharova and Popova.

Thus, the increase in prices for works by artists has led to an increase in counterfeiting. Success Botero of Colombia was accompanied by the appearance of host of imitations of his canvases and sculptures. The American market was flooded with carvings Erte, Moore, Rodin, Archipenko, Matisse, priced out of any competition. The phenomenon that became a giant swing with the advent of the Internet and the success of such a site like E-Bay, in which every week offers hundreds of copies and fakes, sophisticated sellers who use the term "assigned" by Picasso, Matisse, Popova, Ribera, Frida Kalo, Botero, Dali, Renoir, Pissarro, Goncharova, Corot, Mac ...

This is - this epidemic is for the market, which suffers from a crisis of the world economy. Any artist who begins to be in demand, generates an influx of forgeries, as was the case of Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Watteau, and, later, Vlaminck, Derain, de Chirico, Fujita, Warhol, Basquiat, Pollock, and now Kobmasa and other current artists. This is - in a sense, evidence of success, the flip side of the coin. Falsifiers know perfectly well that the proliferation of counterfeiting is punishable by law is much less severe than, for example, distribution of counterfeit banknotes.

We have already said that there is no single personality type counterfeiter - just as impossible to describe the profile of an ideal victim - one of them appear, and people enjoyed the reputation of the experts. But still try to describe the features of forgery.

Unlike a copy of which is as far as possible the faithful reproduction of the original, is in the manufacture of fake tracks, which should not be a repeat of any of original works, in order to deceive the buyer.

Forger produces the product and gives him for the work of the artist, whom he has forged, and sells it at a price corresponding to the quotation forged artworks. Hence, for the profitability of this activity is necessary to choose artists with the high prices. To produce counterfeits must have talent, be familiar with ancient techniques, know the chemical composition of pigments used by old masters, to be able to create a composition in the spirit of these masters, as well as be able to come up with a plausible story to explain the sudden appearance of a 'found' work.

Not all poddelschiki possess the traits necessary to circle the buyer around your finger, and they often find themselves in the hands of speculators, as Legros, who buy from them the results of their operations for the penny.

It should be noted that some of the famous characters are not squeamish about falsifitsiey - for example, Pope Clement VII commissioned a copy of a portrait of Raphael Leon X brushes, and gave him Federico II Gonzaga, assuring him that he had received the original. In any case, the counterfeit trade is kept on the characters, using naive people to take them off vchistuyu. This happened with PR which gradually from a nice and honest man into a swindler.

Elegant, well hold on, he played the role of senior manager, who lives with his beautiful young wife and charming children in a luxurious villa, located in the fashionable suburb. He developed a whole strategy of deception naive lovers of fine arts.

PR ads in newspapers and magazines on art, pretending that there is a need to sell part of its impressive collection of quality, to build a pool or fund some other work. Making first deal with the new victim, he sold the real work to build trust, while he showed his collection, and hinted that in the near future he will have to part with several other items. For all subsequent transactions, the client received falshaki.

This system functioned well for over 10 years, allowing him to inflate scores of people, as customers are not convinced that he had deceived them, and do not go to court. There was absolutely deadly in the weekly paper "Le Buan", which explains all the details of his strategy. As a result, in 2005, our rogue got 5 years in prison, and his pretty wife was taken under police surveillance.

However, many crooks still at large, they have every reason to hope that they will have to pay is not soon, and the profit achieved as long as the light collectors are willing to buy important works of art at a reasonable price.

This is not the end!

The article, which I translated above, was published on the website http://www.artcult.fr/_Sommaire/



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Старый 26.06.2008, 08:55 Язык оригинала: Русский       #6
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This paper suggests that counterfeiting is not only an integral part of the art market, but also necessary. Some kind of additional issue of works of art potential price increases that have not yet been exhausted, and works on the market anymore. In the case of a successful time of placement and quality, fake work accepted by the market and receive equal rights with the originals. In the case of failure of timing (the market is saturated), they are rejected.
In the film, Orson Welles, this idea is also present, in fact there is asked whether to be more valuable than the original forgery.



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Старый 26.06.2008, 10:31 Язык оригинала: Русский       #7
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This paper suggests that counterfeiting is not only an integral part of the art market, but also necessary. Some kind of additional issue of works of art potential price increases that have not yet been exhausted, and works on the market anymore. In the case of a successful time of placement and quality, fake work accepted by the market and receive equal rights with the originals. In the case of failure of timing (the market is saturated), they are rejected.
The idea is not totally true. Counterfeits - is the bane of the art market, the main deterrent to growth and cause many additional costs of identifying the truth. If we imagine a world in which no forgery as a class, then the world art market would exist on a completely different level. It is no secret that most novice buyers are hesitant to buy it for fear of running into fake. Sometimes an experienced collector refuses to buy, knowing that one hundred percent examination can not be done, but check the history of the proposed work would require too much money and time. And how much money and time spent "normal" art dealer to ascertain the truth! And in the end it leads to a significant increase in the cost of art for the "end user". So your idea is not only not true, but dazha harmful. Fakes are only crooks and dishonest experts.



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Старый 26.06.2008, 18:15 Язык оригинала: Русский       #8
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qwerty,
You are all, unfortunately, speak only as art dealers, and not as the heirs of artists for whom either resigning from the family picture as a native child.
Hence the distrust of the family and the desire to err on the будующее.



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Старый 26.06.2008, 20:52 Язык оригинала: Русский       #9
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Сообщение от qwerty Посмотреть сообщение
It is no secret that most novice buyers are hesitant to buy it for fear of running into fake.
That's why I ask the bad questions. And getting answers, begin to believe that there are bona fide experts and those working in art-business, not only for profit's sake. Thank you.
Eugene you are not properly understood the thought of Orson Welles, it is understood that the value is determined by the general opinion, but it usually can be changed. Here's another example:
Portrait of Lorenzo de 'Medici, Raphael went to Christie `s in London for a record for the artist of $ 37.3 million - all the more impressive that his last owner, he had cost the ridiculous $ 325. Here's the hidden little trick: the portrait known long ago, but the authorship of his repeatedly changing. To him not only attributed to: a school of Raphael, or even Bronzino - of course, that was worth a portrait in this case cheaper. True, the last quarter-century author of Raphael Sanzio is considered certain. "
http://globalist.org.ua/?p=87



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Старый 27.06.2008, 22:31 Язык оригинала: Русский       #10
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Falsifiers: lacquer cracks

Dedicated frosinke

After an investigation that lasted over 6 years, the Court of Appeal of Paris condemned the 3-speculators, who were operated on the art market.

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Andre Gombert, a famous art dealer, gallery which is located in the Drouot quarter, was pale as death. Alain Lyatrel, well-known expert, I almost cried. But the head of the character of this drama, Jean-Marc Auizera, at sentencing was not present.

Three of the defendants defrauded collectors of art, selling them for huge money the old painting, attributed to famous masters. Auizera prigovovrili to at 2 years in prison (of which 15 months of probation) and fined 500,000 euros; Gombert and Lyatrelya, respectively, one and a half years and nine months suspended sentence as an accomplice. In addition, they must pay 3,000,000 euros in damages. "The court wanted to make art market warning ', commented the verdict Clarisse Serr, chief counsel victims of crooks, Gzave Gerrana-Ermes.

Fraudulent combination, which in 2002 exposed the newspaper Libération, faultlessly acted for a long time. Wealthy fans of Fine Arts presented "Mr. Edouard", ie Auizera, who explained to his future victims, that he inherited a collection of paintings. He encouraged them to buy the work attributed to them Bregel, Caracci, Guido Reni, in fact they were paintings of dubious origin, which he delivered Gombert. If necessary Lyatrel, an expert in appellate court orally confirmed the authenticity of the proposed works. As a result, foreign bank accounts of speculators were transferred millions of euros.

Cheated customers do not dare to sue, and the contrivance has successfully operated for many years. But the investigation conducted by the Central Service bolby the illicit trade in cultural property found cheating. Defenders of the defendants tried to give their actions a dramatization of innocent transactions, arguing that prices for works of art is very difficult to determine.

In the first instance the court decided to release the accused. But the appellate court decided that since this "theatricalization" was designed to sell mediocre products at prices that are totally unsuited to their artistic value, the defendants engaged in fraud. The Court emphasized the role of Gombert, who not only supplied the pictures, but "gave advice" Auizera while Lyatrel "deceived the trust of clients, as well as confirm the attribution, knowing perfectly well that it is not true." After 6 years of proceedings the court made it clear scams, profit from follies of the art market, that their criminal activity will not go unpunished.

Libération, July 2, 2008



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