With the permission of the author's theme of "Funeral of Moscow" tell what happened once in Odessa. Last Saturday I went to the Transfiguration of the park, and that's what I saw with my own eyes.
To start a small excursion into history ...
The first cemetery in Odessa - the destruction of the Bolshevik pantheon of Russian national glory. This - not a beautiful saying and aphorism. Here are buried the defenders of the Fatherland, the people who Odessa owes its fame, prosperity, and the very fact of existence.
For the history of Odessa - the territory of the Transfiguration of the park is unique. The first Christian cemetery buried Russian general Fyodor Radetsky. This commander Bulgaria was liberated from Turkish yoke quincentennial. Near the temple was his monument - the figure was done in the style of ancient warrior. At the cemetery found their last refuge brother of Alexander Pushkin - The Lion, the brother of one of the founders of Odessa Felix De Ribas. Also at the first Christian cemetery holds the remains of silent film star Vera Cold.
The revolution brought many changes in the life of the city, however, in the cemetery church of All Saints continued to worship until 1934, when the decision of the Presidium of the City Council on 3 May, the church was closed. In the development plans of the city of Odessa has no place of the old Christian cemetery and church in the name of All Saints with him.
In one part of the cemetery is a park with attractions that regularly dances, and then - discos, on the other - the zoo. In order for you to appreciate the scale of abuse of graves will give just one example. In place of the graves of the Cold Vera, who died in Odessa from the "Spanish flu" - was a public toilet.
But the cemetery itself was the name of the park. Ilcha.
Experts say: the territory of the first Christian cemetery is not limited to park Ilyich. At one time, it mingled with the Muslim and Karaite burial complexes.
Since the early 90's, when the name of Lenin began to disappear from the names of streets and cities, it was renamed and this park. Now it is called the Transfiguration. Orthodox congregation in Odessa churches were long-standing struggle to ensure that amusement park and dance pavilion were removed from the graves of the founders of the city. In place of the altar of All Saints church installed Worship Cross, city officials "gave the go-ahead to the restoration of the cemetery church.
Currently, the place where in 1770 the temple was built, conducted archaeological excavations. Found many items, perhaps not of great material value, but it is - the elements of church plate, invaluable for the faithful heart, - fragments of chandeliers, lamps, icon, etc.
Already begun digging the foundation of the temple, the altar part, archaeologists and their assistants tend to find the graves of the priests - their way of life should be five - who were near the temple. Fortunately, the place that showed elderly from Odessa, a former parishioner of All Saints church.
I took a few photos on a mobile phone, the first photograph - view of the temple before the arrival of Soviet power. The tree near the excavation hang lists of those who lie under the asphalt. Written out the names of artists:
Mallmann Fridrikhovich Friedrich (1821-1899), painter, director of the Drawing School in Odessa
Vasiliy Kornienko Anisimovich (1867-1904), Ukrainian painter and schedule
Popov, Alexander Andreevich (1852-1919), Director of the School of Art, St. Petersburg Academy of Arts
Rozmaritsyn Prokofievich Alexander (1844-1917), academician of the Petersburg Academy of Arts
Chojnacki, Joseph P. (1818-1885), painter, director of Odessa's Drawing School
Nicholas Aleksomati Harlampievich (1848-1917), Russian artist
Belousov Matthew Ilyich (1796 -?)
Nicholas Bodarevsky Kornilovich (1850-1921) and others ... ..
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Where are carved palisade?!
Vologda is rapidly losing its monuments of wooden architecture. Arson, natural destruction, demolition, replica - already a common phenomenon for the city, "where the carved palisade. Not in favor of preservation of monuments and the position of local authorities and the indifference of most citizens, and insufficient attention to the issue by the media. Alexander Sazonov, the author's first book of Vologda wooden architecture "Such a city in Russia alone, which appeared in 1993 - of the few whose voice in defense of the unique wooden architecture still audible in the Vologda public and at different levels of government Vologda.
- You spend a tour with the display of wooden houses, and what most attracted the attention of tourists in these homes?
- Back in the late 1970's, people even before the tour had expressed admiration for, say, on the street III International saw wooden gate - this has long been nowhere to be found. These were the last natural, unrestored gate. Ten years before our visit, no one approached. After 10 years with boring people sit in the bus ... But later, under the influence, they say: "Now, looking as if your eyes, penetrated, presented our old days.
Nowadays more and more I meet with people who have specially come to see the wooden architecture. But as one girl said: "I was in Vologda watch wooden architecture - had been deceived, that's going to Kirillov. Tourists are attracted by the very fact that the city is still preserved wooden architecture. In Vologda in the early XX century 4 - 5%of the houses were stone, others - Wooden ... All of inertia say about Vologda, as the ancient Russian city, but in reality it is not. Dynamics of the destruction of wooden architecture depressing. Since the mid 1960's, hundreds of homes in the central part of the city razed. In 1993, my book was 148 sites, in 1996, has 100 with a small, now began to conduct the audit for the tourist circuit - there were 30 with a small, which can go up and shoot without shame to put in the booklet. This is because of thousands, of hundreds in the central part of the city. Are approaching Ekaterinburg, where, as I recently learned, there are only nine sites.
- In the Ministry of Culture, 16 historic towns with wooden architecture. What place, in your opinion, among the cities of Vologda, play with wooden monuments?
- In my opinion, one of the first place, but not to be subjective, I can not send to the same Julian Semyonov, who said that the Vologda - the only city with monuments of wooden architecture in Europe. Dmitry Likhachev wrote that, if you want to get acquainted with the Russian wooden architecture of the city, you need to go to Vologda and Tomsk.
- Who is the chief enemy of wooden architecture Vologda?
- The enemy - apathy. In social survey only 9%of people who understand the value of wooden architecture. Immediately and the indifference of the authorities, who think like most of the inhabitants, moreover - condones such attitudes. Purely formally go to court, and the desire to bring the matter to an end in sight. Gubyatsya corners, which anticipated the revival of neighborhoods with wooden buildings, wooden sidewalks, where the filmmakers would have a live scenery of the city the XIX-XX centuries. Earlier in Vologda Zarechie could put the camera and shoot Zamoskvorechie or set play by Ostrovsky. This year the attempt was made director Maslennikov, who directed the film "Bankrupt". But he had hard.
- One of the reasons for the negative attitude of Vologda to the wooden architecture - unsettled life, the difficulties faced by the majority of the inhabitants of such houses. But over the last two to three decades of residential sites is not much changed there attitude towards their wooden heritage?
- I do not notice ... We lived in this environment. If the city is changing more than seven percent, this leads to psychological discomfort of residents. Should be in place where you can come and immerse themselves in the historic atmosphere of his land and childhood. If the understanding that the church does not need to destroy, has come, the other monuments, especially of wood, about the environment of these churches, not yet.
There is no patriotic education, it all comes down to the military-patriotic. 20 years ago, the authorities have decided: that there is a village, let's embankment in granite dress. And Muscovites tourists come to the river in Vologda, the monument to 800 th anniversary, and say: "Wow, a living river flowing through the city, the green shore!" All of the perceived differently.
- How much city officials understand the existing problem?
- Former Acting Mayor Gorobtsova after one of the meetings, I suggested to go with me on a tour. For two and a half hours in the city two days went, told only half of what I wanted. Then he felt it understood the desire to act. With the current mayor to tour so far failed. Work with other officials. All his books gave the governor Pozgalev, vice-governor of Vologda.
- Is there a chance to save what's left?
- There is a very simple measure against arson. And without changes in federal law. In place of the destroyed monument to prohibit building anything, except how to recover the same monument, in the same materials. He spoke with the mayors, and the previous and the current, all nod their head, but nothing is signed. If there were such an order at the mayor, there would be no sense to burn and would not need any duty conduct.
- In Vologda is an active restructuring of architectural monuments for offices. Houses built of brick and concrete, in violation of proportions, and only remotely resembles the original facade. How do you think is the way to salvation or the destruction of monuments?
- Earlier, I spoke from a position of "not to touch anything, leave it as is." When TSNIIP urban planning in the mid 1970's gave his work to Vologda, there provided for preservation of wooden monuments. Specialists understand that real life can go wrong, and provide extreme, when you could bring down the house in five protected areas in the historic part of town. Life has surpassed the most pessimistic expectations, and the attempt to create a protected zone only partially implemented in the neighborhoods surrounding the lane Zasodimskogo.
There is this attitude of some officials: do we wait until the house be dissolved naturally or be burnt, and in their place build a similar, even better - stone cottages with wood paneling. I highly do not agree to this compromise position taken as a dominant ideology. Rarely see that analog is constructed so that it can not be distinguished from its wooden prototype. From the best examples, perhaps, bring home to Zosimovskii, 35, and building on Herzen - just a good dummy. Therefore, my personal attitude - try to maintain their sites in the original materials.
If the position of the replacement of wooden monuments of stone to build a replica in principle, of course, the value of a historic town of Vologda is rapidly approaching zero. Museum workers are well aware of the difference between a true copy of the object, ie if we go further along this path, then turn the city of monuments in the city casts. If we talk about tourism, historical value, then for these alterations, it will be lost forever. People are going to touch the real, to feel his aura.
- What is the project for the restoration of a wooden house, you would have called the most successful?
- If during the Soviet times it was restored a couple of dozen houses, over the past twenty years, restored the houses 36, 37, 38 at Herzen and partly Stalin's house on Uljanovoj. Restoration workshop is no longer nearly ten years. Talking about quality is not necessary. Inside the house Levashov redesigned interior, inserted windows.
Conservation of the cultural layer - generally a complete failure. History of Vologda, confirmed by archaeological excavations, the least studied compared with other regional centers. And the Kremlin area, during the recent restoration of the Day Surge city, we dug and buried their history forever. Bridge in a landfill, but archaeologists at the excavation yielded week. Academician Yanin in Novgorod 55 years ago, started digging and dug up 10 percent of the cultural layer, and we say: To investigate the Kremlin area for the week. Semi-savagery and barbarity, which, as written by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, begins north of Vologda, now in the heart of the regional capital.
- In the modern world architecture, a long-standing trend towards the use of environmental materials, including wood. How do you think is not a good idea of house building in the style of the series building of the XIX century, and the introduction of fundamentally new and bold projects from wood?
- Traditions live only in development. It is necessary and can create at home using modern technology of environmental materials such as wood. However, I do not see Vologda style in modern architecture of the city, except in compliance with the magnitude of two-storey wooden buildings.
- in Tomsk, there is a social movement to protect the wooden monuments in the capital and St. Petersburg a sufficiently strong community that monitor the preservation of architectural heritage. How many in Vologda active defenders of wooden architecture?
- Unfortunately, there is no social movement. There are only a few enthusiasts who are sick of wooden architecture. Media greedy only sensationalism. House burned - call for comments. Change attitude of the inhabitants of Vologda's history will only targeted promotion of its historical heritage.
- Despite the fact that you call yourself an amateur local historian, now you're the only author of the work on the integrated study of Vologda wooden architecture. Local Old Russian art, church architecture is studied well enough. What is the reason for exclusion there of wooden architecture writer-researcher?
- I'm not local historian and popularizer. I translate into Russian spoken that before I found the other. It was even embarrassed that, having no special education, wrote a book, but with this edition - 47 000. So far it is unclear why this did not deal with museum workers, architects, restorers. Such work must be, because the city is gradually transformed into exhibition, albums, books, and this is very sad. In neighboring towns such authors were and are, for instance, in Yaroslavl, Arkhangelsk. In rural wooden architecture mass sources, the same Opolovnikov and urban only about Tomsk and Kostroma.
Information: Sazonov Aleksandr Irineevich
Born in Vologda in 1952. Currently headed by Vologda Office of the Federal Antimonopoly Service. Has the status of state councilor Russia 3 class. Alexander Irineevich known in Vologda as local historian and author of 4 books on the architectural and historical character. Publication of "My Vologda. Walking through the old town "in terms of sales in the city among the ten best-sellers in 2007. Alexander Sazonov - Chairman of the Vologda regional branch of the All-Russia Society for Protection of Monuments of History and Culture.
Interviews recorded Alexander Дуднев.
Photos used: A. Dudneva, LJ-nick gudea, K. Gudkov
The photo number 1. : In Vologda yet possible to trace the history of the city of wooden architecture of the late XVIII-early XX centuries. Home Zasetskii 1790-ies - the representative of classicism.
The photo number 2: House Nepeina in a single protection zone around the streets of Vologda Zasodimskogo has escaped demolition. Now in its place erected a stone cottage.
Photo number 3: after the resettlement house-monument "happens" fire, followed by the construction of "better" buildings.
The photo number 4: one of the relatively successful examples of modern buildings compensatory (Hertzen Street). However, models will soon be more than monuments.
In the photo number 5: Guseva wooden house was built after the demolition of brick and faced with "under the tree.
Photo number 6: House Levashov. Integrated scientific restoration of wooden monuments nobody does. Restoration of limited repair of the facade.
The photo number 7: a house burned down three times Yadav. Monument from total destruction only saves ethnographer-photographer Leonid Starikov, who continues to live in it.
The photo number 8: Carved palisade.
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The same problem in the glorious city Kostroma.
The house that you see below in black and white image, in the 80 years of the last century, decided to renovate. All of the terms of the restoration took 20 years to one of the first fire, the renovated floors. And now, having lost a lot of all the beautiful carved ornaments and colored stained glass window, he now looks like the photo 2-4.
Street Simanovsky, 14.
P.S. Thanks to our Validating for any photo.
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Must show all the offices in Moscow. Not only do they create clouds of traffic jams and a lot of people - demolished historic buildings.
Conclusion offices in Moscow, in my opinion, the best solution. We have created the same reservation for gaming zones (though no one there not being built), it is also possible to create a reservation for offices.
Окей, Гугл Славная Эпоха
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I wrote here once in the spring a little essay on the cadet rebellion and its suppression, the first - in the long term civil war - bloody of murder, which occurred on the fourth day after the almost bloodless coup. And how the Leningrad authorities immortalized in his day a memorable sign, depicting the cannon, the very place from which the revolutionary sailors point-blank shot Vladimirskoye Infantry School. I wanted to return to the subject a few days later - still on the nose round date: those events will soon be ninety years old.
And now contemplated to talk about the names of our city. Zavarov strong tea, and sit up in the morning for your computer and knock the first sentence: "For some time I was not feeling that I live where I live, not in St. Petersburg."
Here - the phone. Phoned my friend, a resident of the Petrograd side, he rides a bike on his own Pioneer Street. "I put you on notice that toppled Vladimirskoye ..."
I do not believe it. First, the building of the former Vladimirsky infantry school - a whole block, and secondly, it is protected zone of St. Petersburg, and thirdly, the historical monument in the fourth, Wednesday, her element ... Fifth ... Sixth ... etc.
From Haymarket to Chkalovsky the subway two stops. Twenty minutes.
Came, he saw. What can I say? That failed in October the seventeenth year, in an exemplary performed in October zero six. After suppressing the revolt in October released a postcard with a view of the school, disfigured by two breaches of artillery shells, you can compare. Feeling of October this: bombed quarter as if from an airplane.
Everything has been largely destroyed by tall heaps of brick crawl excavator, the boom which is written in large letters "Terminator". Through a cloud of dust comes out a piece of land protruding from the walls, adorned with unpretentious-sweeping graffiti: "The sun! Good morning! Everything will be fine! "Six months ago, passing by, took pictures - I do not know why - a strange appeal of the mysterious sun worshipers. For some, perhaps mysterious reasons, has not been touched.
Due to the blue fence, go chiefs in colorful helmets, go past me. "And that will be built here?" - One (grimly): "Our business is to clear the area. - "I do not leave?". - "Nothing." - "And when the end?" - "Last month'll manage."
Unbelievable. I have many ways to understand ... interests, buying and selling ... but here's the notorious mystic St. Petersburg: a month and just turns ninety years since that day. Okay, sryli, but the prohibitive expressiveness, it is something where? It is a why? Well it can not be such that podgadali special!
Unable to explain the fantastic coincidence, I start myself to indulge in fantasies. Here, I present to high-ranking person in the room comes from somewhere below the proposal to install a memorial plaque: "In this building October 29, 1917 ..." How? Anniversary? What the hell story? Set the board - then will not be torn up. Then what about a business center?
Otherwise I can not explain.
It is now almost night, I stuffed these letters, and seven hundred meters from the fortress are operating TERMINATOR.
So you can find and set. Why not touch on attractions, with all sort of nonsense is obtained. Invented a hero of the job - to guard the warehouse linseed oil in the industrial zone near the abandoned cemetery Gromov, and immediately pulled it awake highway, and the asphalt is already moving to the graves. Posted heroine in the 80 years of working as a typist in the Palace of Culture. Kapranov - and then, in our days, demolished this monument of constructivism. And rapidly growing in its place a multi-mnogozhilischnoe something resembling a tower of Babel. Here - referred Vladimirskoye infantry, staring at him with a gun-pillar, and ...
After some thought, you know, however, that it's not in your vision and even less in the magic power of words - all much easier. Here, you know, working principle of "wherever tkni ...". Wherever tkni, everywhere in St. Petersburg that something happens. Somewhere break, somewhere clearing, somewhere buried previously dug, seal noncontractible, calling something loudly not St Petersburg.
Man-of-Gazprom said loudly: Petersburg-de needs new characters.
How to know him, what needs to Petersburg? In a prophetic dream told him to St. Petersburg on their aspirations?
What is St. Petersburg and needs - so this is not to cut down on the living. And so he did not impose foreign concepts, not tailored to "world standards", was compelled to imitate Moscow.
One might think that a new symbol - from the Babylonian pointless high skyscraper - a readable any meaning other than literal humiliation of the old and enduring symbol of the city - the golden guardian angel Petersburg stodvadtsatimetrovuyu ascended to the heights.
City is experiencing break-up - in both senses. His break, and it breaks. He ceases to understand who he is.
High-ranking city officials with a simple proudly declare: "Saint Petersburg - is already a brand."
And we thought, even the name.
And I do not think is that the name "Saint Petersburg" is the correct name of our city.
I easily called it St Petersburg, when it was Leningrad. In Leningrad, even after all the destruction, the real Petersburg remained higher than in the current city.
Area Worldwide more like the Haymarket than the current Hay, ceased to be an area of the World.
At the time of St. Petersburg Leningrad writers believed Nekrasov and Dostoevsky. In Leningrad times in this city lived Leningrad writers - including Anna Akhmatova, who saw himself Leningrader. And it is strange no one thought. I myself barely managed to capture the "Leningrad period. But suddenly, overnight, all of St. Petersburg became writers, like found themselves without invitations at a literary dinner at the table with Viazemsky and Zhukovsky. I long bothered khaljavnogo expression "Petersburg writer", which applies to our own, Leningrad person. To be honest, still not used to.
Leningradets - which means fate. Lenin here has nothing to do. Whatever the city was called, endured the siege, though his name - any! - Would be assured to experience unprecedented test.
Increasingly, talk about heaven Petersburg. Where can still be the soul of St. Petersburg, nor in the upper chambers of the world?
And that here on earth?
As ideas, as Eidos Petersburg and Leningrad in the same way that we are closed - as offering a sacrifice of their material embodiment in the space of the city. One could say "the future of St. Petersburg", if this was the name of the future. Becoming a brand name of "Saint Petersburg" is no longer true name of this place. Increasingly, "St. Petersburg" seems a pseudonym. And not one to me. The city was caught in the names and troubles of his own history. The true name is not given to us to guess. You can certainly find a suitable - in a first approximation to what we have.
St. Petersburg-bis, for example. "Encore" in an unchanged value - "double", "re". Required ostentatious cry of delight - in excess of mad applause deliberate new glitter and glamor.
Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior, that Bohr in the Kremlin, the Bolsheviks destroyed by May 1, 1933.
The name of the Cathedral of Transfiguration, that Bohr seemed speaks to its antiquity. It seems that during the construction of the first wooden cathedral around it still roaring wild forest, the age-old pine forest. However, archaeological excavations have revealed that in that place already in the XI century there was a village with a trading place, so that one can doubt the existence of close to the Kremlin wild forest, two centuries later.
More likely it can be assumed that the cathedral was built on the site of the ancient market place, because the word "bor" means more and tax, as well as the place where the tax was collected. Then the Church really was "in Bor", ie where there was trading outpost at the confluence of the rivers of Moscow and Neglinnoy, two roads of antiquity.
There is a version that the first wooden church appeared in the same year, when Daniel, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, was a lot of Moscow. But with the dates in this case, all very debatable. It is known that in 1319 in the old church had been temporarily laid the body of Prince Michael of Yaroslav of Tver, the victim in the struggle for power with Yury of Moscow defeated and slain at the command of Khan Uzbek. It was Yuri brought back from the Horde, the body of the defeated enemy and not just handed it to Tver.
But the history of the stone Cathedral of Transfiguration, we can safely count on another son of the founder of Moscow dynasty.
According chronicle the news in 1330, Prince Ivan Kalita "laid the church stone in Moscow, near her yard ...". Stone construction in the once outskirts of the city was once again demonstrate the richness and power of the Prince of Moscow. After the construction of the cathedral Ivan Danilovich is "created that monastery, and special troops in he monk, and love him more than the INEGI monasteries, and often come at it pray for.
Monks he transferred because of the Moscow River, from the Danilov Monastery, founded by his father. Kremlin Spassky Monastery became the favorite child of Prince, he was "much alms dayashe Mnich that existent, yasti same, and pitii and clothes, and quit-rents and every requirement neskudno podavashe them, and harrow Velika tvoryashe they do not obidimym being nikim same." Samuel Church, he "will adorn the icons, and books, and vessels and all kinds of patterns the".
The monastery was granted the status of the palace. It Ivan Kalita took schema before his death, in 1340, but repose was in the Archangel Cathedral. Later, following the example of his father, a nun in the Spassky Monastery received and Simeon the Proud.
Spassky Cathedral of the monastery is considered one of the most respected, because in it to the base of the Kremlin Ascension Monastery buried grand duchess. The first burial took place in 1332, when she died the wife of Ivan Kalita, Elena. In 1345 it was buried the first wife of Simeon the Proud Anastasia, shortly before instigated by painting the cathedral: "a master sergeant and nachyalnitsy byst Russia was born, Grechistii student: Goitan, and Simon, Ivan, and others of their student and the squad." In the Spassky Cathedral found its resting place of the mother of Dmitry Donskoy, Grand Duchess Alexandra in 1364, the son of Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan in 1393 and Grand Duchess Maria, the third wife of Simeon the Proud (not to Ivan the Terrible, the grand dukes been controversial church marital affairs) Maria in 1399.
Disastrous for the Savior Cathedral was the defeat perpetrated Khan Tokhtamysh, who took to Moscow in 1382. Died abbot and many monks. Dmitry Donskoy resumed Spassky church, and gave annual donations to the monastery with a considerable sum for those times - 15 rubles. Many princes bestowed monastery villages, land and other lands.
Spassky Cathedral of the Transfiguration was the first chapel be Moscow's rulers, as the wooden Annunciation appeared only in 1397. We Savior on Bor baptized children, married, served fro the family of Grand Duke, Archimandrite of the Spassky monastery had been confessor to the Grand Dukes and their families. Thus, one of the abbots - Michael (Mityai), pretender to the metropolitan department, was the confessor of Dmitry Donskoy. In 1395 at the cathedral appeared shrine - the tomb of St. Stephen of Perm, educator zyryan, canonized in 1549. He came here to Metropolitan Cyprian, suddenly fell ill and died. He was buried in the Savior on Bor, despite the fact that Zyrians asked to give them the body of their beloved bishop.
But it is time Ivan III and ambitious restructuring of the Kremlin, where the space for the Spassky monastery remained. Especially already appeared Chudov and Ascension Monastery. Spassky Cathedral of the Transfiguration was restrained vast palaces, and the monastery was moved to the Kremlin and was called Novospasskij.
Savior on Bor left the palace church for the laity. Homes for the Grand Duke had already been Annunciation Cathedral, and the parishioners of Our Savior on Bor were numerous palace servants. For them, especially served early liturgy, so that they do everything in time to assume his duties. But the feast day service here is always going the patriarch himself. In the temple were sacred: the miraculous icon of "Praise to the Virgin", a salary from an image Vernicle that Thomas Palaeologus blessed his daughter, and the lectern lay an icon Merciful Savior, brought to Moscow, according to legend, the most Sophia Palaeologus.
Church life in the temple did not subside, he still had the high status of the Kremlin palace church, the appropriate status had his priors. Thus, in the middle of the XVI century the rector was a priest Ermolai (in monasticism Erazm), transferred to Moscow from Pskov, who wrote the famous "Tale of Peter and Fevronia. At the invitation of Metropolitan Macarius, he participated in the creation of the Great Chetih Saints, and even spoke to Ivan the Terrible with the proposals for reforms: for example, he called for not paying the money salary of the serving, but only to secure their estates, to liberate the peasants from cash taxes and heavy Yamskaya service. And later in archpriests Savior on Bor predicted future schism Habakkuk Petrova.
In the XVIII century Spassky Cathedral, as, indeed, the entire Kremlin began to decay, lishas watchful eye of the king. Many times the council examined the architects and consistently denounced on all new decrepitude that had to be corrected. Here in 1730 it was reported that through the vaults was a leak, tile in many places collapsed and overgrown with forest, birch, aspen and mountain ash. As a result, the end of XVIII century the cathedral was virtually rebuilt from scratch. Perhaps rebuilt Matvey Kazakov. Until now, remains a mystery, whether used in the restructuring of the old part of the ancient buildings of Ivan Kalita.
In 1812, the temple located stores of hay and oats for their personal horses of Napoleon, but after the war miraculously spared the cathedral was assigned to the palace temple Vernicle at Terem Palace (Savior of the Gold bars). And after the construction of the Grand Kremlin Palace Savior on Bor was inscribed in his courtyard. This fact contributed to the new restoration in 1850-1860-ies, for which he was invited venerable architect and restorer FF Richter. Particular attention in the refurbishing of the temple was brought to the burial place of Stephen of Perm.
Savior on Bor remained active church until the Revolution. In 1907, there married the daughter of a senator, poet Maria S. Lopuchin and Prince Vladimir Petrovich Trubetskoy, a relative of the philosopher Sergei Trubetskoy and sculptor Pavlo Trubetskoy. His father belonged to the famous names "bottleneck" near Moscow, where he died on the philosopher Vladimir Solovyov. But Mary Trubetskaya-Lopuchin became the most popular in pre-revolutionary Russia translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
Revolution in Moscow began with the closure of the Kremlin cathedrals and monasteries, but the Savior on Bor kept relatively long time. By the time Christ in Bohr considered the oldest church in Moscow (as its predecessor, the Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist, was demolished long before the revolution), but the hastily conducted in 1932, studies have revealed the restructuring of the XVIII century. It turns out that attempts to save the cathedral then actually condemned him to death in the 30-ies of XX century? Although ...
There latest is interesting, but few authentic legend that Stalin once went to the Kremlin in the car and pointed to the Spassky Church: "Clear!" The next day, the temple has disappeared. And Stalin, once again riding in the car, he asked: "And where is that beautiful church?" - "You ordered it demolished! - Answered. "Fools! - Said the leader. - I meant a heap of debris that lay before her. "
Much more likely that the fate of the Savior on Bor was sealed its location in the courtyard of the Grand Kremlin Palace. When the palace began to rebuild, to its north facade new wing was added with service facilities. To make room for the construction of the hull Cathedral of the Savior on Bor and was destroyed by May 1, 1933.
Church of the Assumption of the Theotokos in Pokrovka, destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1936.
One of the "most Moscow churches, has become the pearl of Moscow baroque and the supreme example of this architectural style, had a very sophisticated device. On the first floor of the lower church was consecrated in the name of St. Peter's Chapel of Moscow with the Nativity of John the Baptist, to name day hramozdatelya Ivan Sverchkova. In 1699 built the top, actually Assumption Church. This church was composed of 13 chapters, symbolizing the Lord Jesus Christ and His 12 apostles. The magnificent bell tower, which was connected with the church porch was so magnificent that it could be taken for an independent hip church, "who under the bells". The game was a brilliant white-foamed, snow lace decor with flaming fiery-red temple. Contemporaries Assumption Church appeared as composed of churches community by flying into the heavens, yet graceful, like an architectural poem. This miracle has been carved on the portal symbolic inscription "work of man.
remained an ordinary parish church, but at the same time honor "house" for the merchant Ivan Sverchkova: Second steps of the temple with the main staircase led into the garden surrounding the house Sverchkova, and thus the landlord has its own separate entrance. The church was very high ladder and high promenade - open floor gallery at the entrance to the temple. Each prayer went up the stairs to the promenade and, before crossing the threshold of the temple of God, surveyed revealed from this height the panorama: both created a sense of ascension, cut off from the land which leads to a prayerful mood. To elevate the human soul and mind of this world, letting it to heaven - and what's called bizarre, unearthly beauty of the Assumption Church, symbolizing the beauty of God's creation. Academician Likhachev said that it had to see it surrounded by "low everyday buildings.
Moreover, according to scientists this gigantic church marked the one of the seven sacred hills of Moscow, just as the bell tower of Ivan the Great was crowned chief - Borovitckii hill. Quite close to the Kremlin, Assumption Church almost immediately after construction, in the first half of XVIII century, was among the other determined to be heard cathedral bells ringing. Then there were more patriarchal order: urban churches did not begin before the cathedral bells ringing, to the ringing of bells was not jumble and neblagochestiya. In Moscow, the cathedral bells were in the Assumption Belfry in Kremlin with the bell tower of Ivan the Great, and the bells should not start before or later than the ring Kremlin belfry. (In the case of the patronal feast of the temple of his clergy should receive the blessing of Metropolitan of the early church bells with a record of the order of church affairs.) In order to better compliance with this rule, as many churches in Moscow were remote from the Kremlin and have not heard cathedral bells, created a kind of ecclesiastical "Telegraph." Was told to "listen to the sound" in certain designated to the central church, which heard the bells of the Kremlin and began to ring with him, and they have already started ringing to call the rest of the church. Along with the Sretensky monastery and church of St. Nicholas phenomena on the Arbat in a long list of "blagovestnyh" Churches in Moscow and got Assumption Church on the Pokrovka. The responsibility was enormous, and the blunder of the priests who had missed the cathedral bells, not only fined, but also deprived of dignity.
Church stunned his contemporaries and successors, becoming a brilliant result of the development of Russian architecture, and the forerunner of future architectural eras. She soon became a mysterious parallel with the temple of the Intercession on the Moat, which is Red Square, which will run until the end of her days - too much in common, was echoed in the legends of these churches, starting with the fact that they both were named the eighth wonder of the world. After all, only very rare, unique, if not the only church could be compared with St. Basil's Cathedral. In one series with Assumption Church was originally set Vasily Bazhenov, who considered her not only one of the most beautiful buildings in Moscow, but also a creation of "bright national. Architect and compared it with zamoskvorechenskim temple Clement of Rome, saying that she was even "more affluent tastes deceive, because sozizhdena on a single good pleasure of the builder," that is a holistic architectural creations, like a sculpture carved from a single block of marble.
Assumption Church in awe and foreigners who visited Moscow. For the architect Rastrelli, the greatest master of Baroque, it was the entire creative inspiration: it is her he took as a model for its Smolny Cathedral in St. Petersburg, "the most Russian" from all works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli, the expression of IE Grabar. I remember a figure of speech and the writer Vadim Kojinova that the Paris-born architect Rastrelli was born in Moscow. And it was not the only example of St. Petersburg Moscow imitation pearl. In the northern capital, there is another temple, created by way of explanation of the Assumption Church - a Resurrection in the Smolensk cemetery where the funeral of Alexander Blok.
Even Napoleon was appalled at this church and, according to legend, put a special guard to protect it from fire and looters. However, another legend states that he ordered to take it apart brick by brick, and moved to Paris. It is easy to see here yet another parallel with the temple of the Protection of the moat: it is precisely his Napoleon supposedly wanted to move to Paris and ordered to blow it, when this idea is technically not a success. There are a legend, though Napoleon's Marshal (probably Mortier, which took home the Countess Razumovskaya early Maroseyka), seeing the church, he exclaimed: "Oh! Russian Notre Dame! "Another tradition ascribes this grandiloquent exclamation Napoleon himself. Anyway, the temple of the fire of 1812 is truly a miracle was not injured. But was this the merit of Napoleon? After all, there is evidence and it is quite plausible that in reality the church saved from the fire is not the mythical guard and Tyutchevs serfs, who lived nearby; father's house, a poet and now stands at Armenian Street.
It was lovely and the Moscow Church of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. His wife recalled that, visiting Moscow, he took her, "radical peterburzhku", look at this church because of its highly valued architecture. And visiting the Moscow one, Dostoevsky always rode on Pokrovka pray in the Church of Assumption and admire her. He previously stopped the cab and walked to her foot, the route to consider the church in all its glory. And he visited in these parts and because Starosadsky Lane lived his favorite aunt and godmother, A. Kumanin, which he often visited. Relations with Moscow in Dostoevsky were deep and personal: the greatest genius of Russia was born in it, absorbed here "Russian soul" and hence bore the church and national origin in their works. Moscow for him was a city of churches and church bells. And Assumption Church was true, the national symbol of Moscow.
And the parishioners at the church were wonderful. Features of the parish decided, first, its central location, and, secondly, the changing nature of Pokrovka, where she became known to settle, the rich, the manufacturers. The first of its parishioners have Acris, household hramozdatelya Sverchkova Ivan, who was himself with family members died in the lower church. Their house - magnificent white-stone house - and now is in the eponymous street (house number 8). When Chambers Sverchkov founded another charitable institution - hospice.
Soon after the construction of the Assumption Church, in 1705, the owner of Cricket chambers and a new parishioner of this church was treasurer ID Diamonds - steward of Queen Praskovya Feodorovna, wife of Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich. It is believed that the Chamber officially remained in his possession until 1765, has not yet moved to a new owner - privy councilor AG Zherebtsov. But in Moscow, went to a legend, though in the basements of houses languishing in prison himself Vanka Kain, a robber and a detective (or rather, donositel) in one person. A famous thief, Ivan Osipov Cain, long plundered on the Volga, suddenly at the end of 1741 he came to Moscow in order to detective, and joined the donositeli then gave the whole adventure by sheltering the large catching thieves and small, opening the underground gambling houses, and encouraging looting. "Farmed out" he was a big part of the Moscow police, and they did not touch. Only when the outrage reached the limit and Muscovites have preferred to spend the night in a field, just would not stay in their homes, from St. Petersburg came from the military command of General Ushakov, who in 1749 established an independent commission in the case of Cain. Robber was soon arrested and in 1755 exiled to hard labor in Siberia. Only in this interval Cain and could be contained in the former house of Cricket.
But if the story of a captive Vanka Cain - the legend, the glorious annals of architecture of Moscow, these phenomena from the walls - a reliable fact. In 1779, the Chamber have been sold to the Stone Office, and there established a school of draughtsmen, where he taught Bazhenov and Legrand, and where did the details for a huge wooden model of the Great Kremlin Palace, which the carts were taken to St. Petersburg to the approval of the Empress. And since 1813 in Cricket Chambers worked for the Commission's famous buildings, created by order of Alexander I, in order to restore Moscow after Napoleon's fire. And not just rebuild on the ashes and rebuild in the same historical and architectural style, to prevent the mass of elemental building and keep the face of the city. Chairman of the commission appointed himself mayor Fedor Rostopchin, and members have become Bove, VPStasov, DI Gilardi, A. Grigoriev. The first task set to revive the injured from the explosion Kremlin, as a matter of honor, then the commission has developed exemplary types of buildings and facades, "appropriate to copy, and published them in special albums. Every new house being built in Moscow, was built strictly according to the standard approved by the Commission of the model, thereby create a single style of urban sprawl. The only difference was the status of homeowners: for every social category has been developed its model type. Thus was the famous Moscow Empire miniature mansion, and a typical Moscow house with a mezzanine, and a richer tenants - with the "inevitable" alabaster lions. The Commission worked Cricket wards to 1843, then they became privately owned, and the next interesting page of history was still to come.
At Church of the Assumption were other, more famous parishioners. The first among them should be called famous Pashkov, who lived in Pokrovka - places whose relatives had a magnificent castle on the moss. Their ancestor, a native of Poland, Gregory Pashkevich arrived in Russia in the service of Ivan the Terrible, and since then their name was listed as Pashkova. One of them, languor Pashkov, Tula was a member of the gentry militia in the rebel army, Ivan Bolotnikov and then went over to the king of Basil Shuisky. Another Pashkov, Yegor Ivanovich, was orderly Peter the Great, and his son, PE Pashkov legendary palace built for Moss, known as the home Pashkova.
Owning the same manor in Pokrovka, Alexander Ilyich and Daria Ivanovna Pashkov, belonged to another famous Pashkov House, too, standing on the moss: the very end of the XVIII century Vasily Bazhenov built their homestead with the theatrical wing for balls and Pashkovsky theater, which was very prestigious - to have own home theater. Then, when in 1806 the wing have leased Moscow Imperial Theater, on its stage debut Shchepkin and Mochalov. One of the most luxurious in Moscow, this estate with a wing in 1832, was purchased for the Moscow University. In the main house is located Classroom building (now the Department of Journalism), and in the wing architect Evgraf Tyurin gave houses university Tatyaninsk church.
Main possession of these Pashkov located on Pokrovka in the Big Assumption Lane (in the courtyard of the house number 7). In 1811 was born here Evdokia Petrovna Rostopchina, the future poet and daughter-governor Earl FA Rostopchina, who married his youngest son Andrew. In this house have been Pashkov and Pushkin: Carnival in 1831 full of happiness, he came here with his young wife to ride in a sleigh on the festivities, hosted by the masters of the house. And after only nine years later, in 1840, a vast fortune Pashkov was lost at cards. Villas at the Bolshoi Assumption Treasury bought for Pharmacies, warehouses for the storage of drugs, and under the office. At one time this medical institution supervised incorruptible Dr Haas, who was able not only to protect valuable medical supplies from mice and rats (formally instituted regular cats ...), but to stop theft of drugs, after which he appeared quite a few enemies before they withdraw stolen in mice.
In Pashkova, eminent parishioners of Assumption Church were Prince Shcherbdtov who owned the estate in Cricket Lane, house number 4. Prince Osip Ivanovich accounted YANKOVA great-grandfather of Elizabeth, who left the most prominent memories of the old aristocratic Moscow - "Grandmother Stories", recorded her grandson D. Blagovo. The spirit of Moscow's architecture as a particularly hovers over these places: at the beginning of the XIX century of ownership bought Dobroselov Kazakov, Matvey Kazakov's daughter, who married his middle son, Matthew Matveye, also an architect.
Do not fall behind and trade. In 1890 the parishioners of Assumption Church became brothers Eliseevs, the future founders of the Moscow grocery in Tver, who settled in the house number 10 in Cricket Lane. The principal is a local Orthodox merchants were the kings of chocolate Abrikosov, established in Moscow of its oldest and largest domestic confectionery company (now the concern Babayevsky) - their family business in the most blessed an icon of its source Abbot Novospassky monastery. The head of the firm Alexei Ivanovich Abrikosov, grandsons came to its founder, was not only zealous parishioner, but also a caring elder Assumption Church for many years. Since 1865, he lived with a very large family in those same former Cricket houses sold Abrikosov their former owners. And later bought the house next door, and number 5, writing his wife, Agrippina Alexandrovna, which, incidentally, being the mother of 22 children, based on Miussah Maternity Hospital, now once again bearing her name.
Apricot called kings and Russian advertising, they have something to learn from our contemporaries. For example, in its original packaging, in box and casket, they put tiny little books of Russian writers - Pushkin, Krylov. And the sweets they had an extremely high quality. Confectioner Abrikosov, grasp the truth that Moscow - a capital of tea, tea table Muscovites provided a wide range of fare: from brand candy, jams and candies (those "crows feet" and "Cervical Cancer") to the very elegant dessert - fresh berries, glazed chocolate. In 1900, another chapter in life, the firm won the highest in Russia, commercial title "Supplier of the court of His Imperial Majesty." This meant that his product really was fed to the table, the emperor and to diplomatic receptions at the court. Suppliers have the right to place on its proprietary labels, signs and posters advertising the National Emblem and the signature of the rank - it was not only the highest "quality mark" in pre-revolutionary Russia, but the highest form of advertising.
Another equally famous parishioners of Assumption Church were Botkin tea merchant, also successfully comprehended "true tea" in Moscow - their family home was in Petroverigsky street, house number 4. The company, founded by merchant Peter Kononovich Botkin, even in Catherine's time, was the most famous supplier of Chinese tea, especially beloved in old Moscow. In the middle of the XIX century Botkin, among the first to deliver outlandish Indian and Ceylon tea, which had just mastered on their plantations by the British. Chaetorgovlya was primarily familial case Botkins, but because of their kind have occurred and patrons, and artists, and doctors. One of the sons of the company's founder was the famous Sergei Petrovich Botkin, whose name is now famous Moscow hospital. For many years he has successfully treated a patient in St. Petersburg Saltykov-Shchedrin and extended his life. And his son, Eugene S. Botkin, the latest Russian Life medic, to the end remained faithful to the Tsar Nicholas II and with it died as a martyr in the Ipatiev house.
Another well-known tea merchant's son, Peter Petrovich Botkin, taken after the death of his father's main family business, as was his Assumption church in Pokrovka, while the Kremlin's Archangel Cathedral elder, and later the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. He was very devout, and unusual, though a born merchant, spent whole days sitting in Gostiny yard, where he had a very serious trading. This devout merchant did not wear a mustache and beard, which was a rarity among the Orthodox merchants. One of his daughters - Hope was married to a famous painter Ilya Ostroukhova (in whose house in Trubnikovsky Lane was arranged review of projects of the monument to Gogol, and whose art collection formed the basis of the current icon painting department of the State Tretyakov Gallery). The second daughter - Vera became the wife of NI Guchkov, mayor of Moscow, which contributed to the opening of the National University named AL Shanyavsky - this idea, many have met with hostility. He was the brother of the famous Guchkov, leader of the party "Octobrists" and Defense Minister of the Provisional Government, which in the tragic March 1917 together with VV Shulgin took a bet from Nicholas II's act of abdication.
The Assumption church in Pokrovka had a wonderful gift to influence the human soul, and even fate. It is said that once he saw him, AV Schusev decided to become an architect. Had he and the crucial role for the young DS Likhachev, when he first arrived in Moscow and accidentally came across this church. Future academician later recalled: "The meeting with her I was stunned. In front of me surged frozen cloud of white and red lace ... It was so easy that all she seemed the embodiment of an unknown idea, a dream of something incredibly beautiful. I lived under the impression that meeting. That meeting with the Assumption Church inspired him to devote his life studying ancient cultures. However, the tragic words Likhachev: "If a person is indifferent to the monuments of the history of his country - he is usually indifferent to their country, were under a historical basis.
The tragedy of the century
After the revolution of Assumption Church has acted for a long time for Moscow standards - until 1935. People's Commissariat theomachist Lunacharsky himself was among its fans: it was on his initiative in 1922, Great Uspensky Lane was named in honor of Potapovsky serf masters, and in general he bustled about the church as he could. The authority and power Lunacharskogo shaken during his lifetime, and it is unlikely that further word he could have saved this house, if he lived to the time of its destruction.
In November 1935 the Moscow City Council, chaired by NA Bulganin decided to close and demolish the Church of the Assumption, "having in mind the urgent need to increase travel on a street. Pokrovka ". And then the Muscovite tradition again, for the last time, resonates like an echo of St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square: if the architect PD Baranowski locked in the Assumption Church, either to protect it from demolition or perish along with it, saying, : "Blast me!" Exactly the same legend about the church of the Intercession on the Moat refers to 1936, when the Church of the Assumption has died. The cynicism of the authorities had no limit. A shame it was to rename the street in honor of the great architect of the fortress and demolish the ashes of his creation, famous master.
Before the demolition carried out the necessary research work and measurements. Two carved jamb and fragments of the facade transferred to the museum at the Donskoy Monastery, the top iconostasis in 1706 - in the Novodevichy monastery, where he was placed in the gate Transfiguration Cathedral. Winter 1936 Assumption Church was demolished to the ground, in its place was formed a little square with the notorious birch trees at the corner of Pokrovka and Potapov alley. For a long time there was a beer, then a cafe. "Is not killing us something? Should we not robbed spiritually? "- Bitterly inquired about this academician DS Likhachev. How many tragedies in these lines ...
Too great was the loss, too egregious was the destruction of the church - the national wealth is too great the pain of her death. Maybe that is why in our time increasingly advocated to restore the Church of the Assumption of the surviving measurements, drawings, sketches, newsreels. Moreover, most recently in one of the local houses were found fragments of the church - the remains of the stairs of the lower tiers of the belfry, the elements of outdoor decor. It is believed that the restoration of the temple will help bring the creation of his community. A reconstruction of the holy soul craves Moscow! Most of the Assumption Church as a monument of history compared to the Sukharev Tower or Red Gate, but it seems that it is more applicable to such shrines of Moscow as the chapel of Panagia and the Kazan Cathedral, because it yavila full force of the Orthodox idea of Moscow and all its fantastic beauty and national genius . In the meantime, what remains of the great churches, except the ruins - only the name Potapov Lane.
Pokrovka, one of the oldest streets of Moscow, Moscow has become a phenomenon on the number stood at her church, and this is not counting the alleys, like its name, it dawned on coming here in many churches. And the name she received from the Holy Protection Church, founded in XIV century on the site of the house on N 2 Maroseika and disbanded at the end of XVIII century. In the old days was a single Pokrovka street, and only when there was formed Ukrainian farmstead, a segment of Pokrovka Ilyinskikh gate to Armenia (Stolpovski) alley began to call Maroseyka. Rather Protection Church, too, with the end of XIV century was Nikola's Church, in Blinnikov. Then came Petroverigsky temple, raised in honor of the wedding of Ivan the Terrible in the kingdom and left a name of a local street, surviving church Cosmas and Damian, the Assumption of Pokrovka, Trinity Gryazeh, Resurrection in Barash, and finished outside the temple of the Beheading of John the Baptist, which has remained bell on Zemlyanoy shaft. Assumption Church was only one temple of this magnificent church in abundance, but the most unique.