Church of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1934.
Home in Moscow church, consecrated in the name of Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, stood before the revolution in China-Town, near Lubyanka Square, in the beginning Nikolskaya street. It was founded by a vow queen Natalie Naryshkina where anciently stood a chapel with Vladimirsky way. This chapel, like the church, were based on the road and near the very spot where in 1395 the Muscovites with reverence and awe greeted a miraculous image of Our Lady of Vladimir, hoping to find salvation from the terrible Tamerlane, who was walking with his army to Moscow.
And in memory of the legendary, fateful for the Moscow meeting was based not only Moscow Sretensky Monastery and the Chapel of Vladimir in the Moscow suburb of, and behind her - and the parish church of Vladimir Nikolsky. Its scaly Glaucus, "like a hedgehog, bristling with thorns," as the modern moskvoveda, was far from visible to neighborhoods and beautiful rose above the ancient buildings Nikolskaya street.
It is believed that the ancient chapel with Vladimirsky way was built here at the gates of the Kremlin, in the same 1395, when the icon was met in Moscow, or later, but it is in honor of this event, the Muscovite custom. Either way, the chapel stood here long before the construction of the walls of Kitai-Gorod. And when in 1534 the Italian architect Petrok Lesser, an architect of the Kremlin Assumption Belfry, began to erect a fortress wall, then at this stage it is closely joined to the chapel: then there was constructed a tower with a gate, obtained the official name of "Nikolskye" on local streets and Vladimirskie "- on the chapel. And then, some in the XVI century with a list of the Vladimir Icon was placed on the outer wall of the tower of St. Nicholas China-town. This tower and was at the site of the most epochal for Moscow Sretenskaya road ...
And she Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkin decided to build here a church, consecrated in the name of Vladimir icon. After that time, not only in Moscow but in this historic place has not been a single parish church in honor of the miraculous icon, but only Sretensky monastery and chapel. And festive processions from the Kremlin committed directly to the monastery. The queen took a vow - to build a church here.
The reason was not only a remarkable place - the queen was of the Vladimir icon of his patron, since her birthday falls on a day feast of the miraculous icon. And it Vladimirsky manner, parents of Queen (from other sources, her caregiver Boyar Matveev) blessed her on her wedding day with Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in the distant 1671. This is the ancestral image of widowed empress and complained to the king's gift novoustroennuyu in the church, although before the consecration of his church obetnogo she had no chance to survive.
Construction of the beautiful church in the bright, patterned Naryshinsky Baroque style was begun under the personal order of Peter I, who loved his mother very, summer 1691 on state funds Archer's orders, and it was consecrated in October 1694. Then to it was installed procession from the Kremlin - 21 May in commemoration of the miraculous salvation of Moscow from the raids of the Crimean Khan in 1521.
Interestingly this. Because of its location the church was assigned to Zaikonospassky monastery that on Nikolskaya Street, and it was his clergy serving in the Moscow's Cathedral of the ordinary. However, Vladimir's church was not and could not be joining her in the commercial suburb of Moscow, on the other hand, wrote a pre-revolutionary local historian, in this "besprihodnoy" the church has been the advent of the whole of Moscow, and everyone who went on Nikolskaya Street, certainly came into the temple to pray; Mediatrix of the human race and Savior in Moscow.
Priceless relics of Vladimir Church meet the "palace" status of the temple, erected a vow queen. She became his first presenters, followed by Naryshkina this Kitaygorodsky church and gave Elizabeth, and Maria Feodorovna - rich shroud and air, embroidered hands empresses. Image Vernicle, in a manner "fryazhskogo letters, was, according to legend, written by Simon Ushakov. In the second half of XVIII century architect Vasily Bazhenov built a huge temple in the iconostasis. List of the Vladimir Icon of the beginning of XIX century, a magnificent golden chasuble adorned with precious diamonds, pearls, emeralds and rubies - it was a gift of the famous Earl N. Sheremetev bequest, as the former salary of the miraculous icon of the temple was a "lightweight".
Opposite the church of Vladimir on the left side Nikolskaya once stood the yard of his grandfather, an associate of Peter the Great, the first Russian of Count Boris Petrovich Sheremetev. And his daughter, Natalia, is bitterly mourned the dead emperor Peter II, who heavily favored her husband, Prince Dolgoruky. After the death of a minor ruler, she was deported to Siberia, and her husband was executed. Now the old bytouklade when, along with Moscow's put him in a privileged China-town households were wealthy boyars, there recall only the names of local Cherkassky Lane - the court of Count Sheremetev at one time belonged to Prince Cherkassky. Later all the aristocratic residents pushed the trade shop, training educational institutions, but business centers in Moscow, China-Town.
In the church there was another image of Our Lady of Vladimir, in a silver frame - the one who blessed the patriarch Joachim Queen Naryshkin at the wedding of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
And in 1805 the church came and a new chapel, which was placed a list of icons in a beautiful silver chasuble, arranged for donation to wealthy Muscovites. In that century there was already a famous "break" - the new bushing Gate Chinese city wall, Dig for the sake of convenience, the passage on Nikolskaya street. These prolomnye gates are often termed "Vladimirskaya.
Y "Gap" was the famous collapse of the Moscow bookshops (the second largest after Sukharevka), which is constantly rummaging "zashiblennye book" passionate bibliophiles in search of rarities. One of these inhabitants of the "Gap" was a historian and head of the cadets, the professor PNMilyukov, when he was a student at Moscow University, came here on a daily basis to hold the old and valuable book in their hands - and to supplement their home library.
Even in Soviet times, this tradition is happy to continue - as if in memory of the collapse "in the Gap" is here built a popular second-hand bookshop "Book discovery".
But the fate of the Moscow church was sad - the fall of 1932 it was closed and transferred to the police club. And the summer of 1934 it was demolished along with the wall of China-town, and exactly in the 400-year anniversary of the Moscow fortress. Now in place of the temple - the roadway of the street.
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