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Of course, the vast majority of collectors prefer not to advertise fake, although unofficial estimates of experts, perhaps, about half of all the works are in private collections, are false.
Vladislav Krasnovskii, historian of modern Russian art. (Paris). talked about how the next wave begins fakes and what factors it provoked.
- Acquisition of items of Russian art from the elitist hobby for the elite has become a mass luxury business. When exactly did it all start?
- More about eight years ago was nothing like this: no rush, no such high prices. Price works 70%of Russian participants, for example, the French market does not exceed one thousand dollars. Although there were, of course, and the bright exceptions. "Fugue" by Kandinsky was sold in 1990 to U.S. $ 20.9 million, and "Birthday" Chagall - for $ 14.5 million paintings by Aivazovsky, Goncharova, Vasnetsov, Rodchenko, and for a maximum of ten artists were sold at auction for prices near $ 150 -200 thousand everywhere in France could be seen auctions where paintings of Russian artists, whose works are represented in the Tretyakov Gallery or the Russian Museum, sold for the lottery graphs Western authors.
So now visible rush of interest in Russian art - a phenomenon, rather, the last three or four years. On the one hand, probably need to rejoice, because of Russian art is now much more talk and write. But, on the other hand, in my opinion, the huge company about the Russian art market is based on two factors: ignorance, ignorance of buyers and sellers.
Russia, in this case is not unique, because such things always occur. A similar situation was observed in America late XIX - early XX century, when there appeared a large number of nouveau riche. The laws are the same everywhere: there are a lot of money, buy houses, yachts, cars, but money is still very much, and they need something to spend. Then begin to spend on luxury items, which include works of art. Ignorance in this case, a normal phenomenon, because most people who have earned huge sums of money, far from the art and do not understand that buying.
- Probably, most of these collectors in selecting paintings for sale trust the professionals?
- It happens, and there are buyers, endowed with self-conceit, which to no one listening, believing that once they have earned billions, in art as some will understand. Any phenomenon is always multi-layered, and there are different types of collectors. As well as a completely different Valais those who consider themselves professionals market. There are specialists in the field of art and in the field of sales. Last flourish conjuncture, but are not required to thoroughly understand the painting. Joins two qualities - understanding of art and knowledge of the laws of the market - I personally did not encounter a single person ever.
- Art dealer and is often to its customers certain guarantee of purity of the transaction. It turns out, the buyer is not completely protected, because you can resell each other fake pictures?
- It's always been, since the formation of the art market - roughly since the end of XVI century. By the way, when the pictures were sold at the line of furniture. Lovers and connoisseurs of art, of course, was before, but the art market was not. In fact, the process of its formation began with the emergence of capitalism. Painting of art into a commodity. And initially aesthetic merits to pay little attention. If we look at the history of trades Rembrandt, we see that first of all appreciated the similarity of the portraits or the size of the picture. But gradually the level of a commodity paintings increasingly turn into an aesthetic category, and, accordingly, their price is determined entirely by other moments. And then tempted to sign now called the master, who is best marketed.
Since that time, when the market began, started and forgery. They always have been, are and will be. This is corruption. It has existed always and everywhere, but in Russia, or Zimbabwe is more of it than in France or in England. In addition, it is always easier to cheat on the market, where ignorance prevails. This applies not only to today's Russia, but also, for example, to the early twentieth century America. When they were willing to buy Rembrandt, there flowed "Rembrandt", came the fashion for the Impressionists - flowed "Impressionists". The flow of fakes with time as a regularizing. But now in Russia, constant desire to cash in on ignorance, and to combat this is impossible.
- Maybe you need to somehow punish unscrupulous gallery owners and journalists often write about fakes?
- Let the journalists write, but very often what they publish, is far from reality. They corresponded with each other and almost always poorly known material. Sometimes it is journalists become the first "weeds" of the truth. As for galleries, it is also difficult phenomenon. For example, in the early 90's in Paris opened up a lot of galleries to cover up some other activity. Many professionals were ruined. The owner of the gallery had to immediately pay for everything, and find whether its products buyer - an open question. If we talk about responsibility, it is like in any business: if you're doing it, the wives of dollars for him to answer. In the West, there are galleries with a reputation. The name of this picture as a guarantee of quality and authenticity of your purchase.
Most of the artwork in the price increases when there is documentary traces the history of its origin. Confirmation of the origin and the picture is the main factor tsenouvelichivayuschy. Money in the world much more than good things. If you see a really high-quality work, for it is built all at once, and, consequently, more price rises. For example, at the next auction Sotheby's in London will be selling an early painting by Natalia Goncharova's "Still Life with Fruit". This work was shown in his time at the exhibition "Blue Rider", and then was donated Goncharova Guillaume Apollinaire. So the picture is valuable not only because it was an important moment in the creative artist, but also the fact that its origin is absolutely confirmed.
Ten years ago, I witnessed the sale of this painting. Then a boom in relation to the Russian art has not been, and this painting in France was sold for a fairly modest sum of 1.4 million francs (about $ 230 thousand). While then it was a record for paintings by Natalia Goncharova. For comparison, at the same auction of paintings by French artist Lawrence went for 1.7 million francs. A printmaking Picasso was sold for more than 600 thousand francs.
That is The Draw graphics Picasso (although from the same collection Apollinaire) was rated marginally cheaper than the buyers of large and important oil Goncharova. Currently, the price of this painting has increased at least tenfold, she put up for auction with the assessment of about 1.2 million pounds sterling! And certainly during the auction price will increase significantly. What is a good car, the easier it is to sell.
- It seems not only the quality of the original sold fewer, but high-quality counterfeits are found less often?
- As for fakes, it is like in any case: one does poorly, while the other strives for perfection. Of course, there is a gross forgery, which can be recognized even by the pictures, but there are fake extra-class, which are themselves works of art, if not, then at least the highest skill. We rarely know these people by name, but some became quite famous. For example, the Dutchman Hans van Meegeren. As a teenager, he organized in 1922 by his own exhibition, which ended in complete failure. Particularly active branded him one of the critics, which was considered an expert on Vermeer's Delft. Artist's then recently "discovered", and critics predicted that soon the world will find new fabrics that masters of the XVII century. Van Meegeren and decided to make a false Vermeer. And he forged so talented that his paintings were purchased for the collection of Hermann Goering, and confirmed its authenticity, the same critic, Doctor of Arts, who proclaimed himself an expert on Vermeer's Delft.
The truth finally emerging accident. When after the war in Holland began an investigation in respect of people who collaborated with the Nazis, the German archives revealed the name of Van Meegeren, through which the paintings were sold to Goering. He faces nearly to death for collaboration with the Nazis, and then he confessed that he sold five Vermeer were false, and thus he did, on the contrary, damage to the Nazi regime. He did not believe, and he drew the in-camera "Vermeer." By the way, after such a sensational picture of the recognition of the Van Meegeren also increased in price.
- Maybe you should not bet on who undertook knows where the old work, and search among contemporary artists? For the same avant-garde became known for collectors, especially Americans who buy the work of young artists.
- Well, not only to Americans. If it were not for a Russian collector, perhaps, no one would know and Matisse. Regarding the same avant-garde want to see that interest in him exaggerated. Fashion at the vanguard started relatively late, in the 60's, after Camille Gray released the book "The Great Russian Experiment". And when the interest began to grow, Western diplomats and gallery owners rushed to actively purchase Russian avant-garde. Of course, they bought a lot of these works, but often come across and forgery. Whenever there is demand, there is a proposal, especially as the vanguard of the relatively easy to forge.
In the late 80's and early 90-ies throughout the world began roaring demand for works of art. Many financial institutions have invested in them a lot of money. That's when the Japanese and the Americans had bought a lot of Russian avant-garde, rather, that for him extradited. Then the market crashed, because any excessive demand always ends in the fall. Many players in this market collapsed. For example, the owner of the Parisian gallery "Crayons", which took a big bank loans, was unable to return them, went into hiding in Latin America, then surrendered to authorities and served his own. Prices fell at all, and in particular the Russian avant-garde. It has since Russian avant-garde is not always easy to sell expensive, even if confirmed by the history of origin of the picture.
This applies not only to the little-known artists, but also to the well-known artists such as Malevich. Actually, I want to see, the majority of sales Malevich could be considered illegal, because he had left heirs, and that they belong to
all rights to the paintings of Malevich, located in Europe. As far as these rights are grounded, shows that a resourceful German lawyer could sue for the benefit of the heirs of a New York Museum of Modern Art one of Malevich's paintings, which was later auctioned. Moreover, in agreement heirs receive millions, even if the painting was not sold. And so it happened. Price collectors seemed too high, and now the owner acquired the auction. What does this mean? The fact that the work with an impeccable history of origin did not greatly interested in the collectors, because prices have fallen Russian avant-garde. The world is not so many people who can afford to buy superdorogie works of art, and, moreover, they themselves are experts who are particularly do not need different consultants.
- But now, something went crazy Russian money. Perhaps, we can expect a sharp increase in sales of the avant-garde, and along with forgery?
- First, it is very rush to the Russian avant-garde no. In the early 90's, when Russia began to create corporate collections, those same banks which not only had bought. All this later proved difficult to sell. Even the famous "Black Square" went on the auction is not for the amount for which is sold by market leaders of art. Its price was less than a million dollars. So no rush for no avant-garde, and the forgery is. One of these stories was at the auction "Mack Douglas two years ago. The main unit of the then sales, which was even put on the cover of the catalog is "Teahouse" Larionov. About the origin of the picture written that it allegedly was transferred to the Ministry of Culture of Russia in Baku museum, and he then sold it. One prominent Western experts on Larionov confirmed the authenticity of the picture. And then it turned out that this picture has never existed and no one owes nothing to sell.
In addition to obvious falsehoods in the market of Russian avant-garde found the pictures, the experts could not get a clear opinion. For example, Malevich was a student, Nina Kogan, art historians do not know neither its precise confirmation of the work, with paintings Kogan regularly sold in galleries and at auctions. As a specialist can take responsibility and to confirm the name of the artist, if he does not have any work that would be absolutely confirmed authorship? Many unscrupulous experts simply discredited market Russian avant-garde. And another important issue is to confirm the origin of the paintings heirs. The number of confirmed relatives of fakes has risen sharply after the European law was passed, which for seventy years after his death to any public sale of paintings to his heirs have to pay a four per cent. There was a situation in which the heirs simply do not expose forgery.
- Heirs and art dealers interested in sales, as well as to the artist's name becomes better known, because it increases the price.
- Indeed, if some people for ideological or mercenary considerations are beginning to invest in some of the artist, his name became famous, and as a consequence of price increases at the pictures. The same abstract, and therefore acquired a commercial value, because after the war in the West had begun to invest huge amounts of money. Abstract art emerged in the early XX century and for decades has been exhausted. At the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1937 were given awards including the works of art. And then the world is not now known abstract "Guernica" by Picasso won the grand prize, a picture of a Soviet artist Samokhvalova.
But at the end of World War II art became an important ideological role. Western world in a plastic sense began to identify with abstract art, unlike the Soviet, figurative art. Abstract art began to purposely "pumped up" money, a large number of museums of modern art, and this trend reigned for many years. At the state level in America or in the same France supported it abstract art, and not figuratively. Only now the situation has slowly begun to change.
I keep saying this to the fact that, when purposefully invested large sums of money, there is a kind of artistic phenomenon. In particular, after the war in Germany appeared a group of "new wild". The German state has spent on their promotion of substantial funds, and the price of the work of these artists has risen significantly. In Italy it was the same in regard to so-called Transavantgarde. In France, support is not implemented at the state level, and at major banks or insurance companies, and this, in turn, reduced the level of prices, although the whole of Europe at that time, all moved about in the same direction. You can say that these trends in graphic arts "pumped" money, but from an artistic point of view is debatable whether all worth it. The bad news is that because of the overuse objective art has lost the desire learn the traditional skills of the artist. Many masters have already died, and simply no one has to learn a trade.
- But surely left by those who aspire to perfection ...
- Of course, they have, including among our compatriots living in Europe. For example, one of these parts Russian artist himself rubbing paint and travels to Italy for an abandoned mine in lapis lazuli, then to get out of it in the manner of its masters of the Renaissance, unique blue color. I draw many absolutely phenomenal. Have the technical skill, of course, important, but to create works of art that is not enough. There is a certain nevydelimy sign of art, which makes the work of art. The aesthetic quality of the picture can appreciate a few, and this is also normal. Just as God gives the artist's talent, it gives other people the gift of this talent to recognize, though the taste, of course, developed and nurtured. On the art market represented a lot of interesting artists that are not appreciated. Now, for example, a collector came to collect the so-called fashion the actual art, among which the present and truly gifted people, and the third derivative of a bad artist. " It suddenly look, while this is sold by, say, 50 thousand euros, while some real master may not sell. With this fight is impossible. Of course, if you invest in raising the rating of commercial artist, you'll get a greater interest in him. And much in fact he is talented or not, only time will judge.
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In the late 80's and early 90-ies throughout the world began roaring demand for works of art. Many financial institutions have invested in them huge money. That's when the Japanese and the Americans had bought a lot of Russian avant-garde, rather, that for him extradited. Then the market crashed, because any excessive demand always ends in the fall. Many players in this market collapsed. For example, the owner of the Parisian gallery "Crayons", which took a big bank loans, was unable to return them, went into hiding in Latin America, then surrendered to authorities and served his own. Prices fell at all, and in particular the Russian avant-garde. It has since Russian avant-garde is not always easy to sell expensive, even if confirmed by the history of origin of the picture.
But it is true .. the avant-garde paintings, considering how much there is bullshit, a huge problem ..
and this, too. Fell not a Russian avant-garde, and all art. The reason why the fallen correctly named. Sell it not so hard if he is a true, I assure.
the problem is not with the presence of bullshit, all the same concept of provenance is nobody canceled, but good things rarely come on the market. In all if you want you can understand
До меня мир рисовали таким, как его видят. Я рисую так, как его мыслю. (с) Пикассо.
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