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That's such a little bit strange art, such as Session of black magic and its subsequent disclosure. I decided to translate it, as described (later disproved) that the point of view on the relationship between American art and American policies often occurs in the European trade press.
Red Menace, the Cold War and American painting Web log Ewen, February 2009
Is the painting of Jackson Pollock served as a secret weapon during the Cold War? Is there any reason to believe that at the height of McCarthyite hysteria caused by the "communist threat", the CIA has used abstract expressionism to the export of American liberalism outside the U.S.? Hudozhestvenneye criticism about the relationship between American art and the ideological struggle of the 50-ies. defend the opposite opinion. Try to understand.
12 th March 1947 - the day when President Truman proclaimed himself a defender of "free and liberal world", is now leading an open struggle against Soviet totalitarianism, marked the end of the fall of the Iron Curtain. A few months later entered into force prana Marshall: American economy led the Western European countries from the postwar situation krizima, thus proving its omnipotence. Hegemony Soedinennyvh States has become a reality, tensions of the Cold War ... 1947 was marked by the creation of the CIA, as well as the emergence of a conservative in the Senate, Joseph McCarthy, to defend the reactionary, if not frankly paranoid anti-communist doctrine.
In the same year in New York observed the emergence of local avant-garde, freed from all the complexes in relation to the European tradition of figurative art and founder of gigantism, which led to the transformation of an abstract canvas in a mural. Abstract expressionism presented by such artists as Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman, Arshayl Hills, Robert Mazeruell and Willem De Kooning, soon became regarded as the ultimate triumph of American art, the embodiment of distinctive American expressions. Winning the fight for the market of art? Coincidence? The debate about the relationship between the White House, Kremlin and the New York School of painting going on for over sixty years.
In the teeth of a cigarette on his feet - krosovki, in the hand - wrist, as if in a trance of some kind of ritual dance, he took a few steps, bends over, then straightens up, frantically splashing paint on the surface of the canvas lying on the floor - Jackson Pollock or orgy " Action peynting ", the mythical image of the artist at work, immortalized by the camera Hans Nemyuta, became a symbol of American modernism, christened in 1946 the art critic Robert Coates" abstract expressionism ". Courageous, spontaneous ritual of meeting requirements of young, vigorous nation, Confessing deliv individualism as a virtue? Giant pictures corresponding to the power of this country colossus? Style, freed from the academic and personifying poschbedonosny "free world"? Although carried by them to human values and beliefs of the artists themselves, representatives of Abstract Expressionism, the style is often associated with the chauvinism of the Truman administration.
In an essay that analyzes the strategic role of the American avant-garde in the early Cold aoyny, published in 1973 in the magazine Artforum, and caused numerous disputes, art critic Max Kozloff, drew together a seemingly nesblizhaemye things. Thus, in his view, political indifference of those artists who have devoted themselves to the beautiful and contrasts his peace to the world of common sense in the name of "imagination", fully answered the rhetoric of Washington's busy "fighting for the dominant position of the United States" and setting throughout the world of liberal individualism. M. Kozloff and his pupils, in particular, historians Eva Cockroft, Serge Guibault and Francis Saunders, argue that abstract expressionism was, he did not want that one form of official "positive propaganda", a secret weapon in the service of ideological conflict. Exhibitions of American art, organized in Western Europe in the 1950's. Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) - an institution enjoying the support of the CIA, according kozlofftsy - is disclosed as a way to export to Europe of the American way of life. Conclusion: abstract ekspressionihm owes its success to the Cold War, without which New York would have been much less concerned about the desire to overcome "cultural hegemony of Paris" and "abduct him" the idea of modern art "(Guibault) in a purely diplomatic purposes.
Caution: fresh war!
Pollock, Rothko and the company - a group of puppets used by American secret service? How much it liked the fans of 007, a conspiracy theory has been repeatedly corrected by numerous historians, including Michael Kimmelmen, entangled in its own paradoxes and protivoechiyah. One of them - a fundamental anti-modernism of followers of McCarthyism, whose representatives, enjoyed in 1947 - 1957 gg. great influence, without hesitation censored any cultural product, which felt too much for their taste effect "marksisma. In such a climate of panic red danger label "Communist" is often used to combat the misunderstood forms of artistic expression.
For example, in 1949, MP George Donder became the leader of a crusade against modern art: it was announced a product of a communist revolutionary, Picasso and Duchamp, the nihilist and was associated with the Bolshevik conspiracy aimed at destroying the traditional values of good society WASP Accordingly, the artistic trends that emerged under the influence of European avant-garde, were declared "secret enemy of the state", "weapons of communism", "abomination", the propagation, the artists playing the "soldier of the revolution. If in addition to everything listed recall the Trotskyist past of Clement Greenberg - the famous critic, metsena and patron of Abstract Expressionism - and on politicheskmih belief (quite moderate) of some artists - representatives of Abstract Expressionism ( "Elegy in honor of the Spanish Republic" Mazeruella) seems unlikely that the White House in nashesh driplinga Pollock's technique or the "color field" Rothko voproschenie ideal of patriotism, the more so in search of American culture is drawn to abstract expressionism prekolumbiyskomu art and primitive rituals of shamanism, thus hurting materialism white America Truman.
Put bluntly: this political context is malosposobstvuyuschim triumph in Religion abstract avant-garde. There is a suspicion that art criticism 1970. For which the political interpretation of the development of American art has become an obsession, she suffered from paranoid complex: in the end, nothing is better for the appearance of the school of intellectuals who specialize in conspiracy theories, like thirty years of continuous ideological war.
against Peggy McCarthy
However, "school Kozloffa" not so wrong, drawing a parallel between the exploits of abstract expressionism and the objectives of those in power. It is hard to imagine the success of this American art direction without the financial support of the local elite that gives the "conspiracy theorists" reason to equate the MoMA (the private museum), the Guggenheim Foundation (private collection) and CIA (private agency). They argue that in the midst of the struggle that it led to two fornta - against Communism, on the one hand, and against McCarthy's chauvinism, on the other - the triumph of capitalism and liberal humanism CIA provided the giddy success of American culture, secretly lobbying abstract expressionism ( through the MoMA and the Guggenheim).
The hypothesis is not without appeal. However, if we assume that the CIA was involved in the operation, one must admit that part was very poorly organized, because despite the support of the lobby of abstract expressionism, the movement took a long time to gain a leadership position. In 1950 the U.S. show was held less - even at the MoMA - and exhibitions held in Europe, the public is hostile toward American culture and convinced that she is far behind Europe, I met a very bad thing. In addition, instead of a hand to his brother, the cultural branch of the CIA, U.S. Information Agency, announced a boycott of the abstractionist: in 1954, when MoMA was the curator of the exhibition of the American pavilion at the Venice Biennale, is the agency refused to participate in an exhibition which will showcase the work of "communist Ben Hashanah and alien De Kooning.
So Expressionism triumphed over the "red danger" without any help from the state or was the CIA, but thanks to the support of private cultural uchrezheny that are hostile to the poorly understood by the context of modernism have made every effort to make this a well-known. It took more than ten years to the end of the 1950's. Washington recognized it as a symbol of America - the free, brave, courageous - and deeply capitalist. What do think about Clement Greenberg? Skeptical of this morbid tendency to bind the subliminal art of Pollock and Rothko, in the context hlolodnoy war, Greenberg says: "Those who say that abstract expressionism owe everything to the state, telling stories." If the Guggenheim and Alfred H. Barr, founder of MoMA, admired the works of Pollock or Rothko, it is only because of their artistic qualities and formal perfection. "The state has decided that all this can scribble zksportirovat, only after the art has become a success in the U.S. and abroad. Finally, the artists won the war ».
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Arshile Gorky (Vostanik Adoyan), talented, brilliant Armenian artist, lived in Russia.
Arshile Gorki (Gorky, Arshile) (real name Vostanik Adoyan) (1904-1948), American artist of Armenian descent, a leader of abstract expressionism.
Born in Horkome (Turkish province of Van), 15 April 1904 in the family merchant. Fleeing from war and related persecution of the Armenian population, moved with his family in Tbilisi and then in Batum (1919). In 1920 the family emigrated to the United States.
Attended School of Drawing in Rhode Island in Providence, then (1926-1931) taught at New York at the Drawing School and the Central School of Arts. In his stage name combined the name of "Arshile" (Armenian "Achilles") with the name "Hills" (in honor of Maxim Gorky).
Began with the things traditional figurative kind (Self-portrait with his mother, 1926, Museum of Modern Art, New York) for a long time searching for his style, immersed in P. Cézanne, Picasso and V. Kandinsky. Great influence on him had a meeting with R. Matta (1939). Soon, in developing the principles of surrealism in the direction of increasing irrelevance, Arshile Gorky became one of the the most significant artists of abstract expressionism. Transition from figurativa to abstraction was a series of "Garden in Sochi (1940-1942). He wrote colorful, often deliberately cryptic names on the canvas with shimmering forms, which stand out sharply on a colored background, recalling fragments feverishly pulsating organism. Sometimes in these phantasmagoria guessed - in the form of memories of childhood - the signs of the traditional peasant way of life. Among his works - "artichoke leaf as an owl" (Museum of Modern Art, New York), "The liver as a cock's comb" (Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo), "How embroidered apron my mother unfolds in my life" (private collection, U.S., all work - 1944), "Engagement" 2 (1947, Whitney Museum, New York).
In 1946, the weight of his paintings destroyed in a fire in the studio. Were added to the fire and other misfortunes, including auto accident (1948), crippled his right arm. All this is reflected in the state of mind of the artist.
Died in Sherman Hills (pcs Connecticut) July 21, 1948.
It is interesting, but probably Hirst MI-6 sponsors - not otherwise.
What do you think!! Only for the big money is going to have knowingly cause the gag reflex at the mention of his name in huge masses of the planet.
PR manager Galleries Pinchuk in Kiev when viewing the exhibition, please - "Uymi vomiting, what you see, very expensive": eek:: eek:: eek:
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