It goes also for the European inherit the English by William Morris and John Ruskin, the founders of Arts & Crafts, «Arts and Crafts." In the last decade, 19 th century Arts & Crafts, as well as Art Nouveau conquered city after city and the continent for the continent: Brussels, Nancy, Paris, Vienna, Munich, London, Barcelona, New York. Under different names: Jugendstil in Germany, Palingstil - in Belgium, Tiffany-style - in the U.S.. The new unnamed art in France, has not borrowed from Mr. Siegfried Bing term Art Nouveau, called it "style of lashes, then the style of the end of the century, the" pasta style ", then" modern "(for snobs, Anglophile), then" Metro style "- a direct allusion to the iron lattice, stained glass windows and lights of Paris Metro by Hector Guimard.
But back for a moment in the Maison de l'Art Nouveau Mr. Bing.
In the early twentieth century in his gallery exhibited by Louis Comfort Tiffany, Emile Gale, Auguste Rodin, Fernando Knopf, Toulouse-Lautrec, Edouard Villard and - Rene Lalique. Ustroitelnitsa Rene Lalique exhibition in the Luxembourg Gardens, Yvonne Bryunamer:
He was born in Champagne vineyards. According to some sources, among his relatives were tenants. He loved, like most of his contemporaries, make sketches, sketches. At the time, a lot went for walks, go for a walk. Leduc, for example, sketching, walking with Merimee.
Father Rene Lalique was a Parisian street vendors and was rarely at home. It was a very modest family income. But Rene every summer back in the Champagne. He had an eye naturalist, he loved looking at nature. That is, he literally lived at the grass at the level of insects, constantly sketching.
When his father died, he was 15-16 years old, he was forced to go to work. Friends suggested to his mother:
- You know, he draws wonderfully, he has real talent, and in our time are those who paint decorations, pretty well earned.
Following the sound advice, Renee became a disciple of a jeweler, that is, the man who built the jewels - in their highest quality. This master-jeweler basically did the white decoration, using bright stones and diamonds. The very same carrier structure ornaments completely disappeared for precious stones. That was the meaning of the bracelet or necklace - the maximum detection value of the stone ... ".
Two remarks should be done immediately. Artists Art Nouveau, which is closely associated with the Symbolists, brought to the stage not only the nature and the fact that in nature to them or despised it, what to avoid. Bamboo, seaweed, lianas and hence the name "style lashes, grasshoppers, butterflies, owls, scarab beetles, frogs, fish, dragonflies, swans, eagles, peacocks, snakes - very many snakes. This is the ras des insectes, as said Yvonne Bryunamer, nature at the level of insects.
Second - it is white. In the second half of his career, René Lalique refused enamel, gold, precious stones, even the moon rock, and began working with opal, and then cut the glass. And not in the crystal, and semi-crystal.
Career Rene Lalique developed rapidly. His master, Louis Ocqueoc was fashionable Parisian jeweler who created ornaments in the neo-Rococo. Two years of study allowed Lalique purchase significant experience in working with different materials. But the master of his style does not suit. A revolution in design in that era was not in Paris but in London, and Renee went to London courses ornamentalistiki Saydenhemovskogo college. Of course, he was faced with the movement of Arts & Crafts, which opened his eyes to new possibilities in the design world. Even more significant event was the first retrospective exhibition of Japanese art in 1883 at the École des Beaux-Arts and Exhibition (ibid.) Japanese prints in 1890.
Until 1889, Rene Lalique did not sign their work, which exhibited a well-known jewelers in the Place Vendome: the Wever and Boucheron. But in 1889 he opened his own studio, and a year later he employs over 30 craftsmen. Beginning in 1894, he regularly exhibited at the Salon of French artists, and in 1900 - at the Paris International Fair. By 1904 his fame was so great that he bought jewelry not only in Paris and Berlin, but in New York and St. Petersburg. He works with enamel, moonstone, bone, shell, pearl, ivory and crystal. His fans and a live model is Sarah Bernhardt. This is for her, he creates the famous "collars" of pearl, jewelry, ceramics or metal. She orders him to necklaces, bracelets, brooches and combs for each individual performance. Lalique even invents for her hairstyle.
Sarah Bernhardt introduces Rene Lalique with Robert de Montesquiou, who introduced Lalique in terms of symbolism, and along with aristocrats suburb of Saint-Germain.
Not all be solved are often bulky suspension Rene Lalique, the whole bunch of snakes or giant medallions of transparent enamel, bordered in gold. Motives of stone carving - the female heads and figures, clear, varying depending on the lighting.
But Rene Lalique jewelry devoted only a portion of his career. In cooperation with perfumer Francois Coty, he begins to create a series of bottles and boxes, to join Roger Kochi-e-Galle, Worth and d'Orsay. He cuts the glass figurines for car radiators era, he is increasingly working with glass, creates vases, chandeliers, stained glass, and eventually built his own house, a hotel and a boutique on the waterfront next to the Cours La Reine.
Works of Rene Lalique start collecting, and the largest collector becomes his close friend Calouste Gyulbenkyan ...
At the Paris exhibition in the Luxembourg museum displays 400 works by Rene Lalique: sketches, jewelry, jewelry, sculpture, painting and photography, covering the period from 1890 and 1912. The exhibition will run until the end of July.