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Евгений 31.10.2008 14:52

Examination of Russian avant-garde painting
 


On the possibility of using data on the composition of pigments, ground and tie at the examination of works of Russian avant-garde painting

  Experience research technological features paintings of the past, numbering for a century, has made an invaluable contribution to the study of the history of painting. To date, paintings by old masters studied from this aspect quite well. Therefore, their attribution and expertise, if not always, it is often preceded by a technology research, including chemical analysis of materials. The chemical composition of materials allows to determine the chronological framework of writing a picture: it is impossible to create a masterpiece of the XVII century. pigments, first obtained in the XVIII century. as well as the artist could not use paint made in the XIX century., being a contemporary of the XVIII century.

  But this is the case with the works of masters of the old school.

  Quite a different situation when the object of study - a picture of the beginning of XX century. Bright and original work of artists - representatives of the direction of Russian avant-garde today is the object of attention. Paintings of these artists are on display at various exhibitions of their work - the subject of art history studies, they are restored, and are subject to sale, and as everyone knows, the cost of these works is very high. The latter led to the fact that the art market is flooded with huge number of fakes, some of which are masterfully executed.

 
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This, in turn, causes difficulty in their attribution and examination methods of art-analysis. Therefore, the study material includes pictures Russian Avant-Garde is able to present additional information which may shed light on the history of their creation, to help in unraveling the fundamental question of attribution and expert scrutiny - the establishment of the artwork. Process data, nor in any way a substitute for analysis of art criticism, creating a basis for further search, narrowing its borders. As well as writing the picture is impossible without knowledge of the technology painterly process and the establishment of the authenticity of the artwork can not be based on a study of all of its material constituents.

  First, even the question of the possibility of using data on the material of this time for attribution or examination aroused skepticism from the researchers themselves. The reason is that the colorful palette of preceding centuries almost completely changed in the XIX century. - Century of rapid development of chemical industry. But the same range of artistic materials continues to be made in the next, XX century, and now in the XXI. It seemed logical to assume that the use of pigments in order to distinguish the picture of the XIX century. from paintings XX impossible. This is a priori bias - one of the reasons why the technology school of Russian avant-garde paintings to date, at least in our country, not been systematically studied.

 
Indeed, most often made in the XIX century. pigments continued to be made and in XX, and some continue to be made now. But there are a number of pigments, which appear only in the XX century. This - red cadmium, first obtained in 1905 [1], titanium white - 1916-1918. in a mixture with other inert fillers, and in pure form - in 1923, in Russia they began to produce in 1930. [2]; blue and green phthalocyanine pigments are synthesized in 1935-1936. [3].

  Currently, a number of pigments supplanted by cheaper and less toxic compounds. Thus, significantly decreased the volume of production of white, yellow and red pigments based on lead. More available various organic pigments, and mineral - yellow and red range, as before, are cadmium compounds.

  At the same time to obtain reliable information about how and what material is written in Russian avant-garde works of artists can only be referring to the original works.

  For the first time in the history of the study of painting artists of this direction the authors of the messages had the unique opportunity to study a large group of paintings from various collections of Russian museums, which was part of the program to create a database maintained by the Ministry of Culture of Russia and JSC "Art in Russia".

  Results were examined approximately 70 works by artists such as Kandinsky, Malevich, Popova, Udaltsova, Rozanova, Exter, Larionov, Goncharova, Schr, Kliun, Morgunov, Strezheminsky, Shaposhnikov, Ender, Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Falk, dating from 1908-1921 gg.

 
Although the number of these works are not so great as to make far-reaching conclusions, yet the study revealed some peculiarities in the use of pictorial material.

  Primers. Studies had shown, the picture painted in factory-primed canvas, and on canvas, primed by hand. The common thread of all the soils studied groups - is white.
As fillers soils identified lead, zinc white, chalk, gypsum. In addition to single-layer, the artists used two-layer soils, as well as mixtures of two components.

Very often the work, claiming authorship of the Russian avant-garde artists, and are not, contain as filler soil recrystallized calcite, that is a product obtained by processing the chalk or limestone. Recrystallized calcite, otherwise known as lime whitewash, and used in wall paintings as a primer and as a white pigment in the soil of genuine work, we studied the group of pictures were found.

  In addition to the lime whitewash forgers have also used a mixture of titanium and white lead.

  Pigments. Consider the three color groups of pigments whose identification may significantly affect the results of an examination.

White pigments. As the white pigments, the most common in the groups studied are zinc and lead white. In works

issued for the avant-garde, we have identified white lead, which at the same time different from the original palette of white lead: modern white lead is a large single crystals in the form of tetrahedrons and other geometric forms.

  In the 70 studied the paintings created before 1921 are not detected titanium white or mixed with inert fillers, either in pure form. Very often in films, falsifying the Russian avant-garde, we find a titanium white, which are present either in pure form or mixed with zinc white, or in the form of a triple composition: zinc, titanium and white barite.

  The blue pigments. In the studied group of original paintings often used artificial ultramarine, Prussian blue and cobalt blue. All these pigments are produced now and can be used in the forgery, but most often occurs in non-genuine pictures phthalocyanine blue pigment, first synthesized in 1935

  Often, when studying the paintings of unknown origin found a blue pigment, the beginning of use in painting, which has no data and no data on how, when he was first received. This is a cobalt spectral - such is the trade name of the pigment, which is the composition of silicate of cobalt and zinc. In 1971, the chief technologist Dulevo Porcelain Factory Alevtina Ivanovna Glebychevoy was defended his thesis on production technology of a number of pigments villemitovoy group to which applies the specified connection. It is known that the pigments produced in the Dulyovo for painting on porcelain, were sold to factories for the production of art paints. In the study of original paintings by Russian avant-garde artists of the pigment was not found. The catalog company Lefranc in 1930 [4] such a pigment composition is also absent. Analysis of the materials of paintings, questionable on several grounds, not just the presence of cobalt Identify and spectral.

  Green pigments. Presented in the studied real work shveynfurtskoy emerald green and green, in the same work was found green cobalt. Emerald green continues to take place today. Shveynfurtskaya green because of its toxicity is no longer produced in the mid 1920's., On other sources - it continued to be made in Europe and the United States until 1960., In the early 1980's. it continued to produce as an insecticide.

 
For fakes often use a phthalocyanine green, phthalocyanine blue, or a mixture of pigment with a yellow pigment.

  Despite the fact that the number of original works by artists studied Russian avant-garde is sufficiently representative, the study of pigments in 70 scenes can make some conclusions.

  1. A set of identified pigments fairly uniform for all artists. Analysis of pigments used by the author shows that the artist, as a rule, remains true once selected pigments in the transfer of any color. It should be noted that Kandinsky's palette is somewhat different from the palette of other artists. Perhaps this is due to his habit of working dyes produced in Germany.

  2. Revealed as a combination of pigments, characteristic of the work specified period. For example, in the paintings of Kandinsky 1916-1917 gg., Discovered a red organic pigment and the red lead, and in earlier works (1909) - Red
organic pigment and cinnabar, and in 1909 discovered the paintings of Naples yellow, which is absent in the paintings 1916-1917.

  3. Not found materials, the beginning of industrial production, which does not correspond to the time of writing the paintings, ie, titanium white, and phthalocyanine pigments.

  4. All the investigated work written by the factory paint. Opinion on the possibility of creating new pigments because of the nature of creative experimentation Russian avant-garde artists not confirmed in the study of this group of reference works. This is - a myth.

Prevalent in the art-media presentation that the artists themselves could carry out the synthesis of some pigments, have no basis in reality. In particular, you can hear that phthalocyanine pigments could be obtained at home. Such a view is a complete illusion, based on lack of knowledge on complex processes of organic synthesis, which requires special equipment and special conditions - pressure, high and low temperatures, the use of corrosive agents, ie, anything that can not be created otherwise, except as a laboratory or factories, conditions.

 
Binders. For the period covering the end of the XIX and XX in the whole., Characterized by the use of both traditional oil binder, and various composite compositions based on oil. While identifying oil paintings of colorful layers researcher can determine these parameters it is directly related to the time of painting.


  First, the degree of polymerization, or the degree of aged oil. Roughly based on the chemical properties of the oil film can be divided into three age-grading an oil binder - whether fresh paint layers, ie, deposited about a year or two ago, then - 30-50 years, the latter figure - 100 years. Next determine the age of oil would not be possible.

  Secondly, the chemical analysis of paints containing oil, objective evidence of how the aging process took place oil binder: a natural way, over time, or it was speeded up, falsified, ie, artificial.

 
Thirdly, for thinning oil paints traditionally used organic solvents or resin varnishes on organic solvents or oil. Do so, as a rule, on the palette, and the content of resins in different paint layers was different, as confirmed by chemical analysis.

  In the second half of XX century. of the oil binder radically changed - in the production of dyes is carried out to add significant amounts of resin. Chemical analysis captures the constant ratio of oil /tar ", which suggests that the picture painted by industrial paints the second half of XX century.

  For modern oil paints, the prevailing characteristic of the content of the resin in relation to oil, which is also quite typical of the oil paints the first decades of XX century. and, consequently, is also a significant fact in the examination. Since the second half of XX century in the artistic practice firmly established diluents containing synthetic polymer materials.

 
Alkyd polymers were invented in 1930, acrylic polymers - in 1935, vinyl - in 1937, these polymers were used initially in the form of solutions in organic solvents, and since 1949 in the form of aqueous dispersions. The introduction of the production of art paints happened later. In domestic practice, it falls at the end of 1950 - early 1960's.

  In addition to the traditional techniques of oil painting, there were variations on its basis. Thus, the desire to give oil painting is not its natural matte surface has identified the introduction of lipstick, consisting of resin, usually dammar, and wax. Lipstick mingled with oil paints on the palette, and its amount possible to achieve varying degrees of mat painting. Different ratio of these additives in the paint layers can also be installed analytically. Such a composition of binding suggests that this is not industrial paints. They have been used since the XIX century.

 
Important information regarding the dating of the paintings, can give such a resin as dammar. Open to European artists in the middle of the XIX century, dammar firmly part of the oil paints in the second half of XX century. As evidenced by studies of painting. Dammar in colorful layers of ten years ago is different than dammar in colorful layers of newly written works. As shown by experimental studies, three years later in oil paint containing dammar, appears whitish coating. The absence of such a raid shows slight age of the paint layer.

  Since the XIX century. there are various versions of tempera painting, imitating the brilliant surface of oil paints. In the last quarter of XIX century. Some artists have tried to create new kinds of tempera. This technique has several advantages compared to oil: tempera colors do not darken, instant dry, but the impression of oil, and when used as a diluent water, you can obtain the effect of tempera painting. Experiments on modification of the old tempera been extremely successful, resulting in a number of new species. Because of the different sets of organic components, and hence a different mechanism of aging, the paint layer of such products has a different craquelure or do not have any at all. Tempera "Brilliant", for example, almost gives cracelures because of the high content of dextrin in its composition.

  Paintings made in some forms of "new tempera" often look like oil paintings, so it is necessary to abandon widely practiced in the museum and restoration work of visual detection techniques of painting.

  Another form of tempera was added to the oils in the form of wax emulsion in water. It was also a way to make oil painting uncharacteristic for her matte surface. The paint on such a binder is now called "Wax-oil tempera. However, new and old wax-oil tempera can be distinguished from one another: for the old tempera characteristic volatile components of the ratio of connections in different layers of paint, for new as tempera, on the contrary, this ratio is constant.

  Production of various types of tempera, casein, except oil, lasted until the mid 1940's. Until they were gradually replaced not paint on a variety of polymeric binders, the date of production which have already been named.

 
Study of 15 original paintings 1908-1921 gg. from the collections of provincial museums revealed the following: soils mainly oil, at least - emulsion, only one case detected emulsion primer with the addition of starch. In a colorful layer of oil has been detected only in which of the need to add synthetic varnish. Among the studied new tempera paintings (oil, resin, gum) found only in one picture L. Popova (collage - Still Life number 62's., 1915, Nizhny Novgorod).
As practice shows, the study binder, in some cases may be decisive in determining the time of creation and the authenticity of works of art.
Defining only the composition of soil, pigment or binder, as a rule, does not give the desired result. Only a thorough study of all material components of the picturesque process can bring us closer to the truth.

  Get reliable information about physical characteristics of works of art can only under one condition - original works by examining the methods of physical and chemical analysis. This comparison of the array of data obtained in the study of original works, with the results of the study ekspertiruemyh paintings, gives the maximum effect of technological expertise.
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By topic: Questions of attribution of pictures (Petrov.V .)... http://forum.artinvestment.ru/showthread.php?t=4315
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On the possibility of using data on the composition of pigments, ground and tie at the examination of paintings Russian avant-garde
VN Kireev, SA Pisarev
     FI Rerberg. Paints and other art modern materials. M., 1905. P. 14.
2. Artists' Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics. N. Y. 1997. V. 3.
3. K. Venkataraman. Chemistry of synthetic dyes. 1957. T. II.
4. Etablishments Lefranc. Paris, 1930. P. 10-20.


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