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The most ancient paintings

Запись от Konstantin размещена 16.08.2009 в 20:49



Black stones Iki
 
    Kand. History Andrey Zhukov
 
 
The earliest history of humankind, encompassing the period Many thousands of pre-literate history, to this day remains, in fact, terra incognita. Only in textbooks and review papers, where a few pages can be placed throughout this period of world history, he appears as a sufficiently clear and coherent picture. But "paint a picture" is not so difficult. And what this "picture" simply, the easier it is within the scope of existing scientific paradigms.
 
However, to date, has accumulated an enormous amount of archaeological evidence, which in the literal sense of the word "do not climb in any scope" if it comes to existing theory of human development. But the academic science there are several simple and effective techniques, simply clipping such "inconvenient" information.
 
When it comes to ancient artifact it easier to declare a fake, corroborating the accusation names of several scientific authorities. When this technique for some reason fails, use the second method - the boycott. In other words, the scientific community simply ignores the presence of archaeological facts, not explicable in terms of existing theories or contrary to them.
 
But while the scientific community sometimes gets in a certain situation, entitled "But the elephant's what I did not notice." And one of those "elephants" in the field of archaeological evidence is a collection of engraved stones of a small Peruvian town of Ica.
 
First of all, there must be initially correct accents. Official science considers this collection a fake, because the images on the stones Iki contrary adopted today, the concept of human evolution. Ie basis for the charges of falsification of the facts is the traditional argument for science - "it can not be, because there can never be." But this totally ignores the fact that this collection is the archaeological evidence. These stones are handmade, they are found in the earth, they have a certain antiquity (some stones were found in situ in the pre-Spanish burials). In order to prove their modern origin (ie, to prove fraud) allegations alone are not enough.
 
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Moreover, the correct placement of accents and implies another point. Science is part of the social activity of any modern society, a scientist is a member of society. Virtually any modern democratic country today constitutionally fixed basic legal principle - the presumption of innocence. Adherence to this principle in science, as in other areas of life, must be protected by the Constitution. Consequently, with respect to our history, if a person (group of people) dug from the ground a number of artifacts, it is not obliged to prove their authenticity. These artifacts are the archaeological evidence and should be considered relevant science, that archeology. It implemented the presumption of innocence "in this sphere of human activity. If anyone thinks these artifacts were forged, he should reasonably prove. Moreover, the charge of falsification may result in criminal prosecution. It should therefore appeal to the mechanism of using the constitutional right of presumption of innocence in science. The relevance of this topic is confirmed by the present situation, which has already been mentioned above.
 
This nonfiction entry was necessary because the picture of human history, which arises in studying the collection of stones Ica, looks, at least, just fantastic.
 
 
History collection.
 
The first mention of the findings in this area of Peru black stones with images of strange animals belong to the XVI century. Indian chronicler, Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti in his chronicle, "Relacion de antique dades d'este reyno del Peru" (1570) wrote that in areas Chinchayunga (compare with the modern province of Ica) find a lot of stones with engraved designs. There are a number of reports of the early findings of stones with strange images. But these facts are indirect and dwell on them, I will not.
 
Today we can say with certainty that the 60-ies Ica stones were actively sold on the black market antiquities in Peru. The main seat of the finds of these stones was a small town Okukahe, located 40 kilometers from the provincial capital - the city of Ica. And suppliers stones were uakeros - so in Peru called Relic Hunter. As the exact date of the occurrence of stones called 1961.
 
The first official collectors Iki stones are brothers Carlos and Pablo Solte as well as architect Santiago Agurto Calvo. The latter, in 1966, to personally make sure that the stones are not fake, self-made excavation in the area Okukahe and eventually found two copies of the stones in the burial, pre-Hispanic culture. Jumping forward a bit, it should be noted that finding the Ica stones in burial complexes - a rare thing. We can assume that even in the pre-Incan times, these stones served as ritual objects from the local Indian tribes.
 
Should also note two significant points. First, in those years uakeros sell these stones collectors for a minimum price, just a "few coins. And secondly, because the strange images on the rocks caused by collectors legitimate suspicion, some uakeros offered voluntarily to show Occurrences stones to confirm their authenticity.
 
The real fame stones Iki acquired through the work of Javier Cabrera. Dr. Javier Cabrera (1924-2001) was a direct descendant of Spanish conquistador Don Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, and Toledo, founded in 1563, the city of Ica. Dr. Cabrera was a professor of medicine, dean of the medical faculty at the University of Lima, the founder of the School of Medicine at the National University and the founder of the Museum of Ica stones Ica.
 
It was Dr. Cabrera was so fascinated by stones Ica, which has devoted their collecting and studying the rest (and this is nothing more - nor less than 40 years) life.
 
Dr. Javier Cabrera, Darko was a very remarkable, such is always referred to explicitly - "cranks." He spent almost all his fortune to purchase stones of Ica, which he called gliptolitami. During his life he collected more than 11 000 stones, making his mansion in the center of the city of Ica in the museum. Some researchers have led the other figures to his collection - up to 15 000-20 000 copies. Largest modern scholar stones Iki Denis Swift, has repeatedly had come to Peru to study the collection, believes that it should operate all the same number 11 000.
 
Cabrera himself claimed that the total amount of stones that he had seen in other private collections reaches some 10 000, and the total amount of stones Ica, dispersed in private collections and simply bought by tourists as souvenirs, according to him, reaching 50 000. According to the official, Dr. Cabrera began collecting stones Iki in 1966, in his book "The message engraved stones of Ica" ( "The Message of the Engraved Stones of Ica"), which he published in 1976, Cabrera wrote that the first stones were found in Okukahe in 1961. However, in a private conversation with one of the researchers (Don Patton) Cabrera claimed that even his father in the early 30-ies have found many stones Iki in ancient burials. Such conflicting reports due, first of all, the peculiarities of the nature Cabrera.
 
It should be noted that it was peculiar to a certain mystique. Moreover, he admitted that modern humanity, in his opinion, not yet ready to take a message, encrypted in a different civilization gliptolitah Iki. In his book, he defended the idea that the Ica stones were "rock library", a specially created antediluvian civilization. Moreover, knowing the inevitability of a global disaster, the ruling elite has given an indication of the establishment of the stone library, and then left the planet, migrating to one of the planets of the Pleiades constellation. This whole concept was built Cabrera based on the study of images on the stones Ica, among whom were present as images of unknown continents (including those not on our planet) and Exodus from the Earth and the coming global catastrophe.
 
Not surprisingly, the majority of people who knew Javier Cabrera, including his friends, regarded him as an eccentric, or just crazy. But while the municipal government awarded Dr. Cabrera in 1988, the honorary title of "favorite son of the city Iki, and in October 2001, two months before his death, Cabrera was awarded a gold medal and yet another title of" Hijo Illustre "precisely because of its merits in studying stones Iki.
 
After Cabrera's death his collection was inherited by his daughters, the youngest of whom headed the museum. However, research her father she did not continue.
 
Academic scientists have studied the Ica stones, they were ignored as fact. Moreover, we can assume that someone from the Peruvian academic community was inspired campaign to discredit the findings in order to convince the public in their modern origins. So much so that in the 80 years, Dr. Cabrera was declared a major forgers.
 
In 1970, to prove the authenticity of the Ica stones, Dr. Cabrera has applied to the National Committee for Archeology requesting permission to conduct excavations. However, he was refused. Therefore, the stones in his collection continued to be received from professional uakeros.
 
Skeptics assert that gliptolity are modern fake, often refer to well-known facts (which were published in the Peruvian press in the 70's) that some farmers admitted that they themselves produced and sold the stones of Ica. At one time it served as a basis to formally close the question of the Ica stones.
 
But to understand this situation is simple. First, the robbery of ancient monuments and the illegal sale of antiquities in Peru is a criminal offense. What normal robber recognized the officials or reporters that he was the robber, and therefore willing to bear a fair punishment. Moreover, in the late 60-ies that "farmer", which is a major supplier of stones for Dr. Cabrera, the latter confessed that he had been arrested on charges of selling antiquities, but later was released under a subscription that he would argue that itself makes these stones. The authorities, therefore, even left him his business. A similar recognition from other uakero - Basilio Achua was received by Dennis Swift in the 90's. Secondly, after a history of stones Iki widely known, found a lot of skilled craftsmen, who really started to produce similar products and sell them to tourists. But manufactured for sale counterfeit fairly easy to distinguish from real stones. They differ in how technology application engraving (more primitive), a much more simple iconography of images and, of course, size. Falsifiers not produce handicrafts of the half-ton boulders, thickly covered with engraved images. Contemporary crafts are of medium size, comparable to an apple, or a maximum, melon. The problem of "bogus" nature of the Ica stones, I'll be back later.

 
Here I would like to mention another very remarkable fact. After the death of Carlos Solte in 1968, his brother Pablo gave their collection to the Museum of Ica stones Peruvian burials, where the collection was once hidden in storerooms. When D. Swift, and D. Patton in the 90th years, asked the museum administration fate of this collection, they were told that it did not exist. However, when the assistant director of the museum realized that Swift and Patton reliably known about this collection, he invited them to make a formal written request. When they did this to them as it was officially denied permission to see the collection of Solti.
 
 
Collection.
 
Engraved stones Iki vary considerably in size and even color. Most small stones have a weight of 15-20 grams and the largest weigh up to 500 kg and up to 1.5 meters in height. The bulk of the stones have an average size of watermelon. All of them are in shape are run in the river boulders, mineralogically defined as andesite (volcanic andesite-granite). Their color, the weight, black in different shades, but there are also gray, beige and pink stones. Dr. Cabrera noted a surprising feature of these rocks: andesite very strong mineral, but the stones Iki differ astonishing fragility, they are fighting a fall or bumps into each other.
 
Appliances images on the stones of two types: engraving (depth 1-2 mm) and low relief. There are stones with a combined technique of the image. As early as 1967, Dr. Cabrera has sent 33 samples of stones on the expertise of the company "Hochshild Mauricio Mining Co., among whom were also stones with images of extinct animals. At the conclusion of the geologists was clearly stated that the patina (the natural oxide film) covers the surface of the stones and the line drawings that, in their opinion, shows the antiquity of the samples. In addition, the certificate stated that the edges of etched lines have no significant signs of wear and damage, which would indicate that the rocks were not long in use, but were buried soon after their manufacture. The same conclusion was confirmed by the fact that the Ica stones have a greater proportion than found on the banks of rivers similar andesitic boulders and pebbles.
 
Later similar expert opinions were obtained from the University of Bonn (Germany), University of Lima and the laboratory of the Engineering School of Lima.
 
In addition, analyzing the methods of applying engraving. Experts are convinced that the tools of obsidian, silicon and bronze (taken for the experiment in the museum) are not left on the surface of the stones are no significant traces of a steel tools can barely scratch the surface. As a result of experiments, experts came to the conclusion that the same traces, similar technique images on stones Ica, leaving cutter drill. This fact, incidentally, was used by skeptics as evidence that the Ica stones - a product of modern counterfeiters. However, the assumption that the manufacturers of the stones had similar technology is not too bold, compared with the main motives of images on the stones of Ica.
 
It should also be noted that the drawings on the stones Iki differed greatly in style and image quality, careful consideration. This clearly supports the fact that over the creation of stones employed a large number of artists.
 
Scenes of images on the Ica stones, and are "stumbling block" to the academic research community. As already mentioned, only the collection of Dr. Cabrera in Ike has more than 11,000 exhibits. It is estimated that some researchers about a third of the collection are stones with images of erotic scenes, which is a very common motif in the Andean cultures. However, the rest of the collection is the unique material, a careful study of which is capable of completely overturn our understanding of the history of mankind.
 
Dr. Cabrera, after ten years of study of the collection identified a number of regularities in the images. He came to the conclusion that all the basic motifs of images form a separate distinct series. Each theme is deployed in the series, which may contain from 6.8 to 200 stones. As the plot in the topic is changing the size of stones (upward) and even the technology of applying the image. Ie Simple stories are performed by the method of engraving, and more complex (in the same theme) - the technique of low relief.
 
Moreover, according to Cabrera, certain figures or parts of figures, repeated often, are fairly formalized symbols.
 
Both of these factors allowed Cabrera to conclude that the Ica stones are a "stone's library, organized by a single original idea. Dr. Cabrera tried to collect in its museum collection of other private collectors of stones in Ica and Lima, in order to maximally save the structure "libraries." However, it disappointed, primarily related to what prices exhibited by other collectors for their meetings.
 
Number of subjects (topics), depicted on the stones Iki really suggests that their creators have tried to cover all aspects of their society, but the emphasis was on scientific and technical aspects.
 
In addition to domestic order, the collection contains images of stars and other celestial objects, tools for learning about space (and the microcosm), aircraft and launching their devices, surgery, human and animal embryology, maps of the Earth and other planets and the zodiac calendar, and t . e.
 
Dinosaurs and other extinct animals. Almost a third of the stones in the collection Cabrera has drawings depicting dinosaurs and mammals, which are representations of modern science became extinct before the appearance of man in America. Moreover, the number and diversity of images of extinct animals was so great that Dr. Cabrera was able to identify only those animals that he could identify the basis of their very superficial knowledge of paleontology.
 
The most frequent are the images tritseratopsov, Stegosaurus, various types of dinosaurs zauropodovyh (diplodocus, brahiozavr), pterosaurs, iguanodon and various species of predatory dinosaurs. The most important thing is that in most cases, the dinosaurs are depicted in close interaction with humans. On the rocks in a multitude of people are hunting scenes on brahiozavrov, Stegosaurus, the tyrannosaurus. And the main instrument of man is a metal ax. Typical motifs of man's struggle with a carnivorous dinosaurs. But the most striking images are those where the dinosaurs are represented as pets. So one of the stone depicts a man riding on horseback tritseratopse, and on the back of the lizard shows blanket, a horseman holding a pipe. On the other stone man on the flying pterodactyl! In the air the rider keeps his hand a brandished an object, possibly serving to control dinosaurs. Naturally, such images are not only contrary to current views on the history of mankind, but also the modern sense. But this is not sufficient grounds to deny the existing facts.
 
Modern paleozoology plaintext recognize that the current reconstruction of dinosaurs, especially their appearance (skin color) is completely hypothetical. What is logical, because skin samples dinosaur no one has yet found. Pictures of dinosaurs on gliptolitah Iki always have a picture on the skins of animals, though stylized. It is noteworthy that many of the dinosaurs depicted spotty. Many lizards figure skins combined, spots on the skin alternate with areas of solid color and stripes.
 
As a fact, speaking in favor of the authenticity of the collection Iki, we should mention the image diplodocus with dorsal plates, like those that have Stegosaurus. Only in the early 90-ies have found the first remains Sauropoda (which include diplodocus) with a dorsal plate (Geology, 12/1992, v.20, N12). Some of the rocks shows a whole series of figures, demonstrating the biological cycle of development of these giant lizards.
 
The collection Cabrera, there are many stones with images of extinct mammals in the Americas: the horse, elephant, megatherium (giant sloth), megatserosa (giant deer), the mammoth and others. Very popular motif, found in many stones - a man on horseback. Horse bridle and under blankets, but the stirrups and saddles available. But the number of such images that make up the several series of rocks, indicate that the horse was a pet. This once again shows that the current understanding of the lives of ancient societies, America is too straightforward and primitive, in order to interpret even the already existing facts.
 
Scientific achievements. In many series Iki stones are scenes showing the highest level of medicine in this civilization. The most common subjects are the operations of organ transplants, especially heart. And in one of the series shows the entire process of heart transplant from a young boy old man, including the stage and postoperative rehabilitation of the patient, where the latter is connected through a system of pipes to the circulatory system of a pregnant woman! And when skeptics speak of the "falsification" would like to ask what the wild imagination and at the same time, a profound knowledge of medicine had to have local farmers of the Peruvian heartland in the 60 years to produce these crafts!?
 
Even more surprising are available on some rocks scenes depicting a brain transplant! Such an operation, and today still belongs to the category of fiction. Quite a lot of images of simpler operations, such as blood transfusions or Caesarean section. Interestingly, the instruments operated by the doctors, primitive and monotonous. A set of such tools is depicted in one of the smaller stones - a pair of knives and scissors is quite a modern form.
 
Besides medical subjects on the rocks Iki deployed presented subjects related to research and development (!) Space. Numerous images of stars, sun, comets, changing their relative position in the depicted scenes, shows that the astronomical knowledge of this civilization were at a very high level. If one considers the fact that in a number of stones depicted aircraft of various designs, it becomes understandable desire of Dr. Cabrera to build a hypothesis about the cosmic level of development of this civilization.
 
The collection is a series of stones representing the continents and the continents that are unfamiliar or completely unknown shape and relative position. On the interpretation of Dr. Cabrera on these stones shows not only antediluvian continents, including the Atlantis, but also brought to the surface of another planet.

 
In general, the hypothesis of Cabrera, this civilization, prevailed on Earth to a global catastrophe has reached the highest level of development. She was known about the population of living beings of other planets and even galaxies. They began to actively explore outer space and eventually had to evacuate (probably evacuated elite) with the home planet on the eve of a global cataclysm caused by falling on her huge asteroid (or comet). And "rock library" Iki, in the first place, was created as a warning after surviving the disaster to mankind.
 
Here we should note another interesting fact. In the collection Iki there are several dozen stones, depicting images of the desert Nazca. It Nazca is located 150 km from the city of Ica. Modern scholars, after decades of study of this monument, and can not give an intelligible explanation of any goals or methods of its creation. It is logical to assume that the drawings on the Nazca by the same civilization. By the way, Dr. Cabrera, in his book actively develops the hypothesis that the Nazca served cosmodrome to launch spacecraft antediluvian civilization. Figures and lines on the plateau, in his opinion, served as a kind of energy matrices (or circuits) for the organization of telluric (earth) energies and their use for space launch vehicles.
 
Dr. Javier Cabrera studied his collection for over 40 years. Unfortunately, he published only one book (1975) with the preliminary results of research. Ensuing further campaign to discredit the findings and, in fact, the very real persecution led to Cabrera that he was unable to prepare for publication a second job. But he was deeply convinced that, before a global catastrophe on Earth, there is not an unknown highly developed civilization, but the friend of mankind (or race), which is possibly not a direct ancestor of the modern. By the way, so "There was more humanity" ( "Existio Otra Humanidad.") Called his book about the stones Iki (1994), Spanish journalist and researcher H. Benetts. It should be noted that this is the second, after the book itself Cabrera, published a monograph on this sensational collection.
 
 
Instead of an epilogue.
 
Going back to how I began this material, try to still imagine the position of the traditional scholar, advocate of the evolutionary point of view, and considers the collection of stones Iki gigantic hoax. But with two notable exceptions: that the scientist did not pretend that such a collection does not exist (at least out of respect to the gigantic amount of work done "hoaxer" in order to mislead our trusting humanity) and, secondly, This scientist admits to use in science the principle of presumption of innocence "(rather than shouting:" Where are you butting in with his pig snout in our Kalashny number! ").
 
Then the recognition of the archaeological evidence, which is a collection of Iki, falsification automatically entails a number of assumptions:
 
1. In the first half of the twentieth century, somewhere in the territory of Peru was established underground workshop (or a few workshops), which manufactures stones with drawings in the technique of engraving and low relief. The question that tens of thousands of stones have been artistically handled by one person put simply silly.
 
2. This "workshop" has a significant human and technical resources sufficient to carry tens of thousands of stones and boulders weighing up to several hundred kilograms.
 
3. In the "workshop" working artists, who have considerable experience in the art of carving stone. They had a fairly modern (for those years) equipment required for mechanical engraving andesite.
 
4. In the "workshop" working chemists, capable of using any technologies to simulate the natural patina on manufactured items.
 
5. In the "workshop" were qualified to paleozoology that are not only able to provide the then existing books with pictures of extinct animals, but also, by virtue of his imagination, to predict future discoveries (as in the case of the dorsal plates Sauropoda).
 
6. In the "workshop" and doctors were able to advise the artists on organ transplants - heart, brain and other complex surgical operations (in the 60's!).
 
7. In the "workshop" attended by specialists-archaeologists (or professional uakeros) capable not only discover ancient tombs, but also expose them to lay there a few samples of products "workshop", and then again to conserve so that the subsequent excavations did not reveal a violation of the cultural layer.
 
8. Activities "workshop" was so deeply conspired that the dumping of "products" in the vicinity of a small village Okukahe not attracted any attention to local farmers.
 
9. Organizers of the workshop "had a very substantial financial capacity sufficient for both the organization of the above scope of work, and for carrying out these works over a long period of time.
 
 
In principle, we could double this list, but this does not make much sense. As well as the question of whether what has been made such a "hoax." Retail price Iki stones in a few dollars apiece, marketed by farmers (!) In 60-80 years, no way could recoup the cost of their manufacture. Hence, one can only assume treachery of its strategy to aim for the future: that in 30-50 years, these stones will be worth hundreds of times more expensive (to which our grandchildren will live). Although the money necessary to organize such work, and while it was possible to find a more effective application.
 
Finally, also unclear sophisticated logic "mystifies". Well, done a hundred - a thousand stones with dinosaurs, another hundred with surgery, it is drawn up correctly (ie "rock library" in an abandoned cave), and would do his business. Why are "lumped together" a number of sensational and "unscientific" subjects and themes, each of which even individually immediately raises the suspicion of a hoax, because simply defies common sense. And is this whole set of required assumptions is not contrary to common sense?
 
It remains to add another small stroke. For several decades before similar in scale and intention, "operation" was undertaken in the Mexican city Acámbaro where the "hoaxer" produced and buried in the ground more than 30 000 ceramic figurines, one third of which depicts the dinosaurs. Perhaps it was such a fashion? Or is it a global conspiracy to disorientation of mankind?
 
Human psyche is peculiar to such a defense mechanism that any cuts, or causes the person not to respond to the information that could harm his mental equilibrium. This is a logical and natural mechanism. But if the people who do science, not able to neutralize it in themselves, then it would be, and science is merely a set of ossified postulates and dogmas.
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