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Shoutizatsiya modern culture.

Запись от Агата85 размещена 11.02.2010 в 00:35

Shoutizatsiya modern culture.

    Today in the culture is the process of mixing the elements of mass, folk and "high" subcultures, corresponding to a postmodern strategy of withdrawal of the opposition (including the "mass-elite") and the principle of eclecticism.
         The phenomenon of the show, which arose in the framework of mass culture, has now become a major cultural phenomenon that requires attention from the humanities.
     Show - a massive theatrical act, postrennoe game on principle and has a spectacular nature. Ie Show necessarily publicly (calculated on the perception of the audience), mass (seeking to attract the largest number of observers) and spectacular (which uses visual and other means to achieve the goal - to surprise, amuse and shock the public).
           At the heart of any show is the game as the main organizing factor. Show - a game with the lead actors and spectators, game participants to each other, etc. Ie show is one of the main forms of presentation of the game in modern culture. In addition, the show - it is an opportunity for a time free from everyday life, get into the world of entertainment and recreation. Thus show stands karnavalizirovannoy modern form of culture.
    Shaw, originally associated with the television and entertainment industry, gradually began to penetrate into all spheres of life that allows you to talk about shoutizatsii modern culture.
     Show Business (Music Industry) in the title secured the fundamental principle of its operation. Today, every concert into a show in which the principal is "stardom" artist, an extraordinary spectacle (bright decorations, special effects, etc.) and attract the widest possible audience. The quality of the music blends into the background, giving way showiness happening.
    Television is a continuous flow raznooobraznyh show (entertainment, intellectual, political talk show), which lead visitors into a virtual karnavalizirovanny world, has nothing to do with reality. Separately it is necessary to speak about the phenomenon of reality shows, which occupy a significant part of television time. Private human life is transformed into round the clock show, for which millions of viewers watching. People give up their lives, immersed in a virtual, artificially created world of reality shows. The limit of such shows can be considered an American film "The Truman Show" (1998) with D. Kerry in the lead role. If the participants of today's reality shows ( "House," "Big Brother", "Star Factory", etc.) are free to decide on participation in the project, the "Truman Show" the protagonist is a party to a grand show, not knowing this. All his life - cleverly srezhisirovannaya simulation clock broadcast around the world.
     Neposlednee show takes place in the cinema. Hong Kong-Chinese film "Hot News" (2004) and Sweden-Russia's remake of the 2009 show how the operation to capture the bandits into a reality show broadcast on all channels of the country. Law enforcers turn the lives of hostages in a thrilling show, followed by the whole world in real time. Of course, this feature films, but they accurately reflect the current state of culture, where everything becomes an occasion and the theme for the show.
     Politics ceased to perform its traditional functions, becoming in the media booth, the main events which are entertaining spectacle in nature (the electoral campaign, the black PR, behavior and appearance of politicians, etc.). Political talk shows, taking place in prime time on the most popular channels, beat all the viewership ratings of activity.
     French art theorist Guy Debord in 1967, proposed the concept of "public performance" as dominant in the postmodern era. This concept is not only aesthetic, but political and economic. "The book is perceived as an artistic manifesto, which provides a conceptual apparatus for analyzing the political and economic subtexts of contemporary visual culture." [5,112]
   According to Deborah, modern society is totally theatrical, using the concept of "spectacle", he criticizes Western philosophy and bourgeois society. Society, based on modern industry is not accidentally or superficially spectacular - at its very basis, it is the spectators. In the play - this image of the ruling economy, the goal is nothing, development - all. The spectacle aims at nothing less than himself. "[3] The play, born of a modern production system, today is the preservation of this system. "The play also represents society itself, and part of society, and the instrument of unification of society." [3] Modern production makes people passive and tireless consumers, as alienated from the products of their labor, and from themselves.
   Total theatricalization leads to the unification of the world and the blurring of differences. Due to the performance of direct perception and action is replaced by distant and passive surveillance. "The play, as the tendency to bring a world that is not grasped directly, through the various specialized mediations, believes the privileged human sense of vision, which in the earlier era was the sense of touch." [3]
           The performance is inextricably linked with the state and power. Speaking on behalf of the authorities, the performance turns people into silent spectators, incapable of critical thinking and resistance to the existing order. "The alienation of the audience in favor of the contemplated object (which is the result of his own unconscious activity) is expressed as follows: the more he contemplates the less he lives, the more he agreed to plead in the dominant images of need, the less he understands his own existence and their own desire . [3]
   Thus, criticizing modern culture, Deborah finds her theatrical, representative character, which is expressed in the universal system of consumption and conversion of inactive people in the audience.
     Thus, modern culture is deeply theatrical and realized in the form of a show or performance.

                                           Shoutizatsiya art.
     Separately it is necessary to say about the dramatization and shoutizatsii contemporary art.
     The main forms of presentation of art - exhibitions and festivals (all kinds Biennale, Triennial, etc.) - are represented today in the form of the show. The grandiose opening ceremony and the award winners, the art-vip-party for guests, large-scale expositions and projects - all this testifies to the fact that contemporary art - is not so much the content as a chic form. Suffice it to recall the Ukrainian pavilion at the 53rd Venice Biennale, which impressed everyone, especially, the extent a party to celebrate the opening, the number of "stars" who were present at her, and only then - actually an art project. "Sered guests, які surveyed the експозицію in the Palazzo Пападополі she took a lot вечірці - top model Наомі Campbell, one із найвидатніших fashion-дизайнерів Marc Jacobs, архітектор Zurab Церетелі, the artists Jeff Koons is the Ентоні Гормлі. Vitali Klitschko was represented at вечірці Svoge brother Volodymyr, який vistupiv цього rock curator експозиції Ukrayinsky павільйону. [...] Близько десятої свій vistup broach Вєрка Serduchka - s Songs Lasha Thumbai, scho two Rocky to the moon on Євробаченні. At the rear courtyard of Palazzo гості Mali zmogu skushtuvati egged української кухні, scho was vzhe традицією for Ukrayinsky павільйону have Венеції. "[9] That is, directly interested in the art of a narrow circle of specialists (curators, critics and artists), for the majority of the same - it spectacular show and the theme for the news. A statement by Verka Serduchka once again proves the fact that opposition to "mass-elite" are no longer relevant. The main thing that was spectacular, appealing to the audience and attracted attention.
    It is appropriate to say about the phenomenon of "red carpet", an inherent part of any film festival. Shire is a concept applicable to all art projects, having a shoutizirovanny character. "Red carpet" - a symbol of "star", glamorous life, made at the public. Art is one of the reasons for organizing the show and demonstrate various attributes of luxury and glamor (highly paid performers, expensive accessories, exquisite food, fashionable clothing, etc.). And often it is done at the expense of the quality of the art, for which everything is organized. Quality of art-project is replaced by the number of related non-fiction (or malohudozhestvennyh) elements. Thus, the phenomenon of "red carpet" is inherent in all art events, which are shoutizirovanny character.
     Here you can talk about the game of art and non-artistic, the main principle of which - to maintain a balance between art and the show.
     With regard to the dramatization of art, there is need to analyze parateatralnye forms of art, which today are most relevant.
      By parateatralnym forms of art are happenings, performance and flash-mob.
    What is "parateatralnost"? Remembering the meaning of prefix "para-" You can talk about the ambivalent sense of the term: on the one hand, he points to a certain proximity to the theater and the relationship with him, but on the other - is different from him, and even somewhat opposed sobstenno theatricality.
What unites all parateatralnye forms of theater? First of all, process (the length of time) and action (active performer and audience). Happenings, in general, was born in the bosom of the avant-garde theater and today is an integral part of modern theater.
     However, between considered species and the theater more differences than common features.
1. The lack of professionalism. Unlike the actor, who needs special education, the performers of performances or happenings do not require special skills. We can say that this type of art available to everyone. "Artist Perfomance frees itself from the use of any kind was acting techniques and stage technician, he is not burdened by a need for a special something to portray or play (" create an image ").»[7]
2. Proximity to life. "Scenes" for these kinds of Actionism can be any location of the museum and gallery to the street, train station, etc., as subsidiary means (that the theater is called props) here is a normal thing, taken from everyday life.
3. Rethinking the role of performer and spectator. If in a traditional theater the protagonist is an actor, a game which has some merit, in parateatralnyh forms the focus has shifted to the viewer who interprets what is happening in their own way, based on our own experiences and knowledge. That is, how many visitors, so many variations of perception. "The fundamental repetition, the demonstrative elementary plot and visual means significantly relieve not only the speaker, who is not trying to do anything but what he really does, but also helps the viewer to try to address myself perfomansista. Materiality (real) action exacerbates the speaker empathy the audience and inevitably involves them in the process, performed perfomansistom. Shifts in the viewer is also in the generation of meanings and ideas. In performance the viewing smysloporozhdayuschaya activity markedly predominates over the author. This means that ideas and meanings, in particular, appear among the audience. The fact that the author had in mind, can all stay behind the scenes. "[6]
4. No script. In contrast to the theatrical, which is the directorial concept, plot and rehearsals, actionism waives any case scenario plan and otrepetirovannosti. All his views are based on the game of improvisation and spontaneity.
     Thus, we found out why we are interested Actionism types are called "parateatralnye form. Now consider each of them individually and find out what function they perform in the game.
     Happenings - the earliest and one of the main types Actionism. The background and scientific literature, there are many definitions of the term, which essentially boils down to this: happenings - is a "theatrical act on the basis of improvisation with active audience participation, aimed at erasing the boundaries between art and life." [4] appeared in the works of Dadaists, using the 1950's. in experimental theater, is already in the 60's happenings became an independent view of "art actions". Most famous representatives in this area are members Fluxus - an art movement that existed in Europe and the U.S. in 1960 (D. Makkinas, D. Gage, J. Ono and others). They proclaimed the idea of combining art and life, which today is dominant.
     Understanding art as a game, and speaking for artizatsiyu life, Fluxus participants staged various actions aimed at the adoption of the new role of art. An example is the famous "work" D. Cage's "4'33", initiating the modern Actionism. Pianist, after sitting motionless on time at the piano, left, and music are sounds made by listeners. Thus, students become, unwittingly, to the musicians.
   The main feature of happenings - a high degree of improvisation. Without a clear plan, the Executive only sets the basic rules of the game, the result is unpredictable. In addition, the happenings (as opposed to performance) can take an active part and the spectators, are co-sponsoring "works" and influencing its outcome. Therefore happenings significant role played by chance both structural factor. How much will the participants, who they are, how they will behave - all affect the course and outcome events. While standing immediately clarify that the happenings (and the "art actions" in general) priority is not the outcome, but a living process, specifically the time of the game action.
    Venue of the happenings can be any area (park, station, stadium), the very fact of what is happening transformed into art space.
            Today, more common than the happenings is a performance, which in many respects similar to it, but has some peculiarities. Talking about performance, you need to bear in mind the view grew. philosopher M. Ryklina: "On the performance, apparently, impossible to speak in general: the effect of a presence in each case is concrete and neobobschaem. Classification performances do not exist, but one can say: this is an experience that allows you to realize many other life situations as the same open experience. "[6]
1. Performance - is in most cases "one-man show", ie protagonist is an artist who sets some rules of the game (more accurate than in happenings). Spectators are not involved in the action, and experiencing what is happening. The author follows him only known scenario by demonstrating some physical and spiritual characteristics.
2. Place of performance is often limited to art sites (museums, art galleries, art festivals). Ie in performance does not have the effect of surprise inherent happenings (converting non-artistic space in art). The artist, through their actions creates a situation in which face life and art. In the process of harping on a particular situation are born entirely new, sometimes paradoxical meanings that make the audience a different feel and perceive reality.
3. Performance has a definite goal, but this goal is always multi-layered.
  "The top layer - exactly what a character means - reading, playing the situation for the disclosure of ironic games (quite a character nedvuhsmysleno claims about their sexual freedom, political creed, religious facilities, which often looks impartially or funny) is the part of the viewer. The inner layer includes more stringent targets that caused by the development of the artistic process and the aspirations of the artist - it could be as a protest against mass culture, muzeefitsirovaniya art, break tradition and other drastic problems, but the artistic direction. Another layer - is the existential nature - the endless expansion of the frontiers of art, blurring between life and art, to overcome the alienation of art, which leads to slow its subordinate cultural tastes of the masses. "[1]
4. Documentation. Чтобы зафиксировать перформанс, создают фото- и видеоархивы. Видеоперформансы постепенно превратились в самостоятельный вид искусства.
      Самой молодой из рассматриваемых арт-практик является флеш-моб, появившийся в 2003 г. в США. Первая акция флеш-мобберов заключалась в том, что около 150 человек в мебельном отделе нью-йоркского магазина попросили «любовный ковер для пригородной коммуны». Флеш-моб быстро распространился по всему миру, став неотъемлемым атрибутом городской среды. Именно из-за своей «молодости», флеш-моб еще не получил достаточного теоретического обоснования в гуманитарной науке. Сейчас делаются первые попытки в этом направлении.
   Итак, давая определение этому явлению, можно сказать, что «флеш-моб – это публичное, организованное через интернет или мобильный телефон собрание людей, совершающих некие действия и затем исчезающих»[8,100] Его основными принципами являются:
- анонимность – участники акции либо незнакомы, либо не показывают того, что знакомы.
- эффект неожиданности – участники появляются в указанном месте и исчезают (растворяются в толпе) совершенно неожиданно для остальных прохожих.
- дисциплинированность – флеш-мобберы действуют согласно инструкции, полученной от организаторов.
- абсурдность – чем абсурдней действия мобберов, тем больший эффект акция производит на зрителей.
- наличие зрителей - место проведения акций должно быть многолюдным, чтобы привлечь максимальное количество зрителей (торговые комплексы, центральные улицы и площади).
В отличие от хеппенинга и перформанса, авторами и участниками которых, как правило являются люди из арт-среды (художники, писатели и т.д.), в флеш-мобе принять участие может любой желающий, зарегистрировавшийся на специальных сайтах. Кроме того, зрители могут присоединиться к мобберам во время проведения акции. Ie здесь наиболее полно реализуется принцип артизации жизни, провозглашенный искусством ХХ в.
     Является ли флеш-моб игровым действом? И если да, то в какой мере? Несомненно, является. Люди, на вопрос : «Что вас привлекает в флеш-мобе?», отвечают : «это похоже на приключение», «это какой-то элемент игры, секретности», «это позволяет нарушить привычный ход жизни».[10] Т.е., флеш-моб представляется возможностью уйти от обыденности и погрузиться в мир игры и абсурда. Это же мнение разделяет и одесский исследователь И. Голубович: «Флэш-моб - это, безусловно, игра, игровое действо. Данный феномен встроен в тот механизм современной культуры, которым ``цивилизация ...играется'', тем самым выявляя свое фундаментальное свойство. Игры, в которые играют люди и сама культура, бывают разными. Функция той игры, в пространстве которой существует флэш-моб, - ерничество, провокация, расшатывание сложившегося положения вещей, но без претензий его разрушить или выйти за рамки установленной законности, демонстрация ``странного'', просто демонстрация как таковая, в чистом виде.»[2]
  Подводя итог всему вышесказанному, можно констатировать, что все рассмотренные паратеатральные арт-практики – это всегда игра искусства и неискусства, попытка в игровой форме получить нетривиальный жизненный и эстетический опыт.
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