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The Legend of Van Gogh

Запись от NZR размещена 13.06.2010 в 23:43

According to sociologists, the world's most famous three-artist: Leonardo da Vinci, Vincent Van Gogh and Pablo Picasso. Leonardo's "responsible" for the art of old masters, Van Gogh - for Impressionist and Post-XIX century, and Picasso - for abstract and modernist XX century. Moreover, if Leonardo appears in the eyes of the public are not so much a painter as a universal genius, and Picasso - fashionable "secular lion" and a public figure - a man of peace, Van Gogh represents the artist's name. He is considered a lunatic genius of single-and a martyr, not thinking about fame and money. However, this image, which are all used, no more than a myth, which was used to "roll out" Van Gogh and profitably sell his paintings.
The basis of legends about the artist is a true fact - he took up painting, as a mature man, and just ten years "ran" the path from novice to master artist, changed the way of art. All this during his lifetime Van Gogh was perceived as a "miracle" that has no real explanation. Biography of the artist is not full of adventures, such as the fate of Paul Gauguin, who managed to visit and the broker on the exchange, and a sailor, and died from the exotic to the European inhabitant of leprosy in no less exotic Hiva Oa, one of the Marquesas Islands. Van Gogh was "boring workaholic", and, except for the strange psychic attacks, he appeared shortly before his death, and most of the deaths resulting from suicide attempts, catch mifotvortsam was not for that. But these few "trump cards" were played by these masters of their craft.
The main creator of the Legend of the Wizard, was a German gallery owner and art critic Julius Meier-Graefe. He quickly realized the scale of the genius of the great Dutchman, and most importantly - the market potential of his paintings. In 1893, twenty-six-gallery owner bought the painting "A couple in love" and thought of "advertising" forward-looking product. With a lively pen, Meier-Graefe decided to write appealing to collectors and art lovers, a biography of the artist. Alive, he did not find him, and was therefore "free" from personal experience that has beset contemporary masters. In addition, Van Gogh was born and raised in Holland, and finally evolved as a painter in France. In Germany, where Meier-Graefe was introduced the legend of the artist no one knew anything, and a gallery owner and art began with a "clean slate". He did not immediately "felt" the image of the mad genius of a single, now everyone knows. First meyerovsky Van Gogh was "a healthy man of the people", and his work - "the harmony between art and life" and the herald of a new Great style, which Meyer-Graefe considered modern. But modern plays out in a few years, and Van Gogh from the pen of an enterprising German "retrained" in the rebel-garde, who led the fight against the mossy academics realists. Van Gogh, an anarchist was popular in the bohemian artistic circles, but the frightened philistine. And only "the third edition of" legend satisfy everyone. In the "scientific monograph" in 1921 under the name "Vincent", with unusual for this kind of literature is subtitled "A novel about a God-seekers" Meier-Graefe, presented to the public of St. madman, a hand which led God. Highlight of this "biography" is the story of the severed ear and a creative frenzy that swept a small, lonely man, like Akaki Akakievich Bashmachkin, to the heights of genius.

On the "curvature" of the prototype

This Vincent Van Gogh had little in common with "Vincent" Meier-Graefe. Start with the fact that he graduated from the prestigious private school, freely spoke and wrote in three languages, read a lot, winning in artistic Parisian circles nickname Spinoza. For Van Gogh was a big family, which never left him without support, although she was not happy with his experiments. His grandfather was a famous bookbinder ancient manuscripts, worked for several European courts, three of his uncles have successfully traded in the art, and one was an admiral and head of the port of Antwerp, in his house he lived when he was in this city. The real Van Gogh was very sober and pragmatic person.
For example, one of the central "bogoiskatelskih" episodes of the legend with "going to the people" was the fact that in 1879 Van Gogh was a preacher in the Belgian mining area Borinazh. What did not they made up Meier-Graefe and his followers! Here and "break with the environment" and "desire to suffer along with the wretched and destitute. The reason is simple. Vincent decided to go to his father's footsteps and become a priest. In order to get rank, should have been five years of study at the seminary. Or - get a crash course in three years in the evangelical school, a simplified program, but still free. I warn all the mandatory six-month "experience" of missionary work in the outback. Here, Van Gogh and went to the miners. Of course, he was a humanist, he tried to help these people, but come closer to them and thought, always remaining the middle class. After serving sentences in Borinazhe, Van Gogh decided to enroll in the evangelical school, and it turned out that the rules have changed and the Dutch like it, in contrast to the Flemings, to pay for tuition. After that hurt "missionary" has left religion and decided to become an artist.
And this choice is also not accidental. Van Gogh is a professional trader art - art dealer in the largest firm Gupil. Partner it was his uncle, Vincent, in whose honor and named the young Dutchman. He patronized him. "Gupil" played a leading role in Europe to trade the old masters and solid contemporary academic painting, but not afraid to sell and "moderate innovators" like barbizontsev. Over the past 7 years, Van Gogh made his career in easy, based on family traditions antiques business. From the Amsterdam branch, he moved first to The Hague, then in London and, finally, the headquarters of the firm in Paris. Over the years, the nephew of the co-owner "Gupilya" passed a major school, and studied the major European museums and private collections, many closed, became a true expert in painting, not only by Rembrandt and the small Dutch and French - from Ingres to Delacroix. "Surrounded by paintings - he wrote - I was smitten by his violent, verging on frenzy with love. His idol was the French painter Jean Francois Millet, famed at the time of his "peasant" paintings, which "Gupil" sold at prices in the tens of thousands of francs.
That's what a successful "bytopisatelem lower classes", as Millais was going to be and Van Gogh, using his knowledge of the life of miners and peasants learned in Borinazhe. Contrary to legend, art dealer Van Gogh was a brilliant dilettante like such "painters of the day Sunday, as a customs officer or guard Rousseau Pirosmani. With behind the fundamental knowledge of history and theory of art, as well as the practice of trading them, stubborn Dutchman in 27 years began a systematic study of craft art. He started drawing on the latest special books, which he from all over Europe sent his uncle-art dealer. Hand Van Gogh put his cousin, an artist from The Hague Anton Mahouve, who was later grateful pupil devoted one of his paintings. Van Gogh even went first to Brussels and then in Antwerp Academy of Fine Arts, where he studied for three months until he went to Paris.
Return newfound artist persuaded in 1886 to leave his younger brother Theodore. This former booming successful art dealer played a key role in the fate of the wizard. Theo Vincent advised to quit "peasant" paintings, explaining that it is already "tillage field." And besides, "black paintings" like "The Potato Eaters" at all times, sold less than bright and joyful art. Another thing - literally created for the success of "light painting" Impressionists: continuous sun and holiday. The public will sooner or later it will appreciate.


Since Van Gogh was in the capital of the "new art" - Paris and on the advice of Theo went to study in a private studio of Fernand Cormon, who was a "source of manpower," a new generation of artists-experimenters. There, the Dutchman became close friends with the future pillars of post-impressionism, as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Emile Bernard and Lucien Pissarro. Van Gogh studied anatomy, drawing with gypsum and literally soaked up all the new ideas that seethed Paris.
Theo introduced him to leading art critics and their clients, artists, among whom were not only have achieved a firm of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas, but the "rising stars" Signac and Gauguin. By the time of his arrival in Paris, his brother Vincent was the head of the "experimental" branch "Gupilya" in Montmartre. A man with a strong sense of a new and excellent businessman, Theo one of the first saw a new era in art. He persuaded the conservative leadership "Gupilya" allow him to take the risk to engage in trade "light painting". The gallery Theo held solo exhibitions Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet and other Impressionists, to which Paris had begun to get used to. One floor above, in his own apartment, he arranged "changing exhibitions" paintings daring youth, who "Gupil" afraid to show formally. It was the prototype of the elite "apartment exhibitions" have entered into vogue in the XX century, and their work became a nail Vincent.
Even in 1884 the brothers Van Gogi enter into an arrangement. Theo, in exchange for painting Vincent pays him 220 francs per month and provides his brushes, canvases and paints a better quality. By the way, thanks to this picture of Van Gogh in contrast to Gauguin and Toulouse-Lautrec, because of lack of money who have written on whatever, so well preserved. 220 francs accounted for a quarter of the monthly wage of a doctor or a lawyer. Postman Joseph Ruhlen in Arles, where legend has done something like the patron saint of "beggar" Van Gogh, received half and in contrast to the lonely artist fed the family with three children. Money Van Gogh even enough to create a collection of Japanese prints. In addition, his brother Theo supplied "overalls": blouses and the famous hat, necessary books and reproductions. He paid for treatment of Vincent.
All this was not simple charity. The brothers were ambitious plan - to create a market for post-impressionist paintings, a generation of artists who went to replace Monet and his friends. And with Vincent Van Gogh as one of the leaders of this generation. Connect the seemingly irreconcilable - risky avant-garde art world of Bohemia and commercial success in the spirit of respectable "Gupilya. There are nearly a century ahead of its time: only Andy Warhol and other American popartistam was once rich in the avant-garde art.


The general situation of Vincent Van Gogh was unique. He worked as an artist on a contract with art dealer, who was one of the key figures of the market "light painting". And this was his art dealer brother. On such a position to count every franc restless wanderer Gauguin, for example, could only dream of. On top of Vincent was not a simple puppet in the hands of a businessman Theo. Nor was he bessrebrenikom, not wishing to sell their profane paintings, which he freely gave "kindred souls," wrote Meyer-Graefe. Van Gogh, like any normal person who wanted the recognition is not a distant posterity, and in life. Confessions of an important sign which for him is money. And being himself a former trader art, he knew how to do it.
One of the main topics of his letters to Theo does not search for God, and talk about what we need to do to be profitable to sell the painting and what painting can quickly find the way to the heart of the buyer. To advance in the market, he led an impeccable formula: "Nothing will help us sell our paintings are better than their recognition of good decoration for the homes of the middle class." To illustrate how will "look" post-impressionist paintings in the bourgeois interior, Van Gogh himself in 1887, gave two exhibitions at the Cafe Tambourine Man "and restaurant" La Forsch "in Paris and even sold them to several papers. Later legend beat this fact as an act of desperation of the artist, whom no one wanted to start on the normal show.
And yet he regular exhibitors at the Salon of independent and free theater - the most fashionable places in Paris intellectuals of that time. His paintings are exhibited art dealer Arsene Porter, George Thomas, Pierre Martin and Tanga. Great Cezanne had the opportunity to show their creativity at the personal exhibition only in the age of 56, after almost four decades of hard labor. While the work of Vincent, an artist with a six-year veteran, could be seen at any time to "rent the exhibition" Theo, where have visited the artistic elite of the capital of the art world - Paris.
The real Van Gogh least similar to the recluse of legend. He - his best artists in the medium period, the most convincing evidence of anything - a few portraits of the Dutchman, painted by Toulouse-Lautrec, Roussel, Bernard. Lucien Pissarro painted his conversation with the most influential art critic of those years Fenelon. Camille Pissarro, Van Gogh remember that did not hesitate to stop him the right man in the street and straight at the wall of a house to show their paintings. Present in such a situation of this hermit Cezanne's simply impossible.
Legend has firmly established notion of unrecognized Van Gogh that was sold during the life of one of his painting "The Red Vineyard" which now hangs in the Moscow Museum of Fine Arts named after AS Pushkin. In fact, sales of paintings from the exhibition in Brussels in 1890 for 400 francs was a breakthrough of Van Gogh in the world of serious prices. He sold no worse than their contemporaries Seurat and Gauguin. According to the documents it is known that the artist bought 14 works. The first is a family friend made the Dutch art dealer Terstig in February 1882, and Vincent wrote to Theo: "First the sheep passed through the bridge. In fact, sales were more about the rest simply did not survive accurate evidence.
With regard to non-recognition, then starting from 1888, prominent critics of Gustave Kahn and Felix Fenelon in the reviews of exhibitions of "independent" as they called then the avant-garde, allocate fresh and vivid works by Van Gogh. The critic Octave Mirbeau Roden advised to buy his paintings. They were in the collection of such discerning connoisseur, like Edgar Degas. During the life of Vincent read in the newspaper "Mercure de France that he was a great artist, the heir of Rembrandt and Hals. It is written in his article entirely dedicated to the works' surprising Dutchman ", a rising star of the" new criticism "Henri Ore. He intended to create a biography of Van Gogh, but, unfortunately, died of tuberculosis soon after the death of the artist.

On the mind, "free from the shackles"

But the "biography" Meier-Graefe published, and in it he was especially painted "an intuitive, free from the shackles of the mind" the process of Van Gogh.
"Vincent wrote paintings in a blind, unconscious ecstasy. His temperament is splashed on the canvas. Trees were shouting, the clouds were hunting each other. Sun dazzling gaped hole, leading to chaos. "
The easiest way to refute this idea of Van Gogh the artist's own words: "Great is created not only by impulsive actions, but also the complicity of the set of things that were brought to an aggregate ... With art as with everything else: great is not something accidental, but must be created by persistent effort of will. "
The vast majority of letters by Van Gogh focus on "kitchen" of painting: the statement of objectives, materials, equipment. The case is almost unprecedented in the history of art. The Dutchman was a real workaholic and asserted: "In art, we must work, as a few blacks, and down with his skin." At the end of his life he actually wrote very quickly, the picture could from beginning to end to two hours. But all the while repeating a favorite expression of the American painter Whistler: "I did it in two hours, but worked for years to do in two hours, something worthwhile."
Van Gogh was not writing on a whim - a long time and worked hard with the same motive. In the town of Arles, where he built his studio, leaving Paris, he began a series of 30 works, by a common creative task "Contrast". The contrast of color, theme, composition. For example, Pandanus Café at Arles "and" Room at Arles ". In the first scene - the darkness and tension, in the second - the light and harmony. In the same series of several options for the famous "Sunflowers". The whole series was conceived as an example of jewelry "homes of the middle class." We have before us from beginning to end-designed creative and market strategy. After seeing his paintings in the exhibition "independent", Gauguin wrote: "You are only thinking of all the artist.
The cornerstone of the legend of Van Gogh, his madness. Allegedly, only it allowed him to look at such depths that are not available to mere mortals. Но художник не был с юности полубезумцем со вспышками гениальности. Периоды депрессии, сопровождаемые припадками, похожими на эпилепсию, от которых он лечился в психиатрической клинике, начались у него только в последние полтора года жизни. Врачи видели в этом действие абсента — алкогольного напитка, настоянного на полыни, чье разрушительное действие на нервную систему стало известно только в XX веке. При этом как раз именно в период обострения болезни художник не мог писать. Так что псхическое расстройство не «помогало» гению Ван Гога, а мешало.
Очень сомнительна знаменитая история с ухом. Оказалось, что Ван Гог не мог отрезать его себе «под корень», он просто истек бы кровью, ведь помощь ему оказали только через 10 часов после инцидента. У него была отрезана только мочка, о чем сказано во врачебном заключении. И кто это сделал? Существует версия, что это произошло во время ссоры с Гогеном, которая имела место в тот день. Искушенный в матросских драках Гоген полоснул Ван Гога по уху, и у того от всего пережитого случился нервный припадок. Позже, чтобы оправдать свое поведение, Гоген сочинил историю о том, что Ван Гог в припадке безумия гонялся за ним с бритвой в руках, а потом покалечил сам себя.
Даже картина «Комната в Арле», искривленное пространство которой считали фиксацией безумного состояния Ван Гога, оказалась на удивление реалистичной. Были найдены планы дома, в котором художник жил в Арле. Стены и потолок его жилища действительно были скошенными. Никогда Ван Гог не писал картин при луне со свечами, укрепленными на шляпе. Но творцы легенды всегда вольно обращались с фактами. Зловещую картину «Пшеничное поле», с уходящей вдаль дорогой, застилаемой стаей воронов, они, например, объявили последним полотном мастера, предсказывающим его смерть. Но хорошо известно, что после нее он написал еще целый ряд работ, где злополучное поле изображено сжатым.
«Ноу-хау» главного автора мифа о Ван Гоге Юлиуса Мейер-Грефе — не просто вранье, а подача вымышленных событий вперемешку с подлинными фактами, да еще в форме безупречного научного труда. Например, подлинный факт — Ван Гог любил работать под открытым небом потому, что плохо переносил запах скипидара, которым разводят краски, — «биограф» использовал как основу для фантастической версии о причине самоубийства мастера. Якобы Ван Гог влюбился в солнце — источник его вдохновения и не позволял себе покрывать голову шляпой, стоя под его жгучими лучами. У него сгорели все волосы, солнце напекло незащищенный череп, он сошел с ума и покончил с собой. На поздних автопортретах Ван Гога и изображениях мертвого художника, сделанных его друзьми, видно, что волос на голове он не утратил до самой смерти.

«Прозрения юродивого»

Ван Гог выстрелил в себя 27 июля 1890 года, после того как, казалось, его психический кризис был преодолен. Незадолго до этого его выписали из клиники с заключением: «Выздоровел». Сам факт того, что хозяин меблированных комнат в Овере, где Ван Гог жил в последние месяцы своей жизни, доверил ему револьвер, необходимый художнику для отпугивания ворон во время работы на этюдах, говорит о том, что он вел себя абсолютно нормально. Сегодня врачи сходятся на том, что самоубийство произошло не во время припадка, а было результатом стечения внешних обстоятельств. Тео женился, у него появился ребенок, и Винсента угнетала мысль, что брат будет заниматься только своей семьей, а не их планом покорения художественного мира.
После рокового выстрела Ван Гог прожил еще два дня, был удивительно спокоен и стойко переносил страдания. Он скончался на руках у безутешного брата, который так и не смог оправиться от этой потери и умер спустя полгода. Фирма «Гупиль» за бесценок распродала все произведения импрессионистов и постимпрессионистов, которые накопил в галерее на Монмартре Тео Ван Гог, и закрыла эксперимент со «светлой живописью». Картины Винсента Ван Гога вдова Тео Иоганна Ван Гог-Бонгер увезла в Голландию. Только в начале XX столетия к великому голландцу пришла тотальная слава. Как считают специалисты, если бы не почти одновременная ранняя смерть обоих братьев, это произошло бы еще в середине 1890-х годов и Ван Гог был бы очень богатым человеком. Но судьба распорядилась иначе. Пожинать плоды трудов великого живописца Винсента и великого галериста Тео стали люди типа Мейер-Грефе.

В кого вселился Винсент?

Роман о богоискателе «Винсент» предприимчивого немца пришелся как нельзя кстати в обстановке крушения идеалов после бойни Первой мировой войны. Мученик от искусства и безумец, мистическое творчество которого предстало под пером Мейер-Грефе чем-то вроде новой религии, такой Ван Гог захватил воображение и пресыщенных интеллектуалов, и неискушенных обывателей. Легенда оттеснила на задний план не только биографию реального художника, но и извратила представление о его картинах. В них видели какое-то месиво красок, в котором угадываются пророческие «прозрения» юродивого. Мейер-Грефе превратился в главного знатока «мистического голландца» и стал не только торговать картинами Ван Гога, но и за большие деньги выдавать сертификаты о подлинности произведений, появлявшихся под именем Ван Гога на художественном рынке.
В середине 1920-х годов к нему пришел некий Отто Вакер, выступавший с эротическими танцами в берлинских кабаре под псевдонимом Олинто Ловель. Он показал несколько картин с подписью «Винсент», написанных в духе легенды. Мейер-Грефе пришел в восторг и немедленно подтвердил их подлинность. Всего Вакер, открывший свою собственную галерею в модном районе на Потсдамерплац, выбросил на рынок больше 30 «Ван Гогов», пока не поползли слухи о том, что они фальшивые. Поскольку речь шла об очень большой сумме, в дело вмешалась полиция. На суде танцор-галерист рассказывал байку-«провенанс», которой «кормил» и своих доверчивых клиентов. Картины он якобы приобрел у русского аристократа, который купил их еще в начале века, а во время революции успел вывезти из России в Швейцарию. Имя Вакер не называл, утверждая, что озлобленные потерей «национального сокровища» большевики уничтожат семью аристократа, оставшуюся в Советской России.
В битве экспертов, которая развернулась в апреле 1932 года в судебном зале берлинского района Моабит, Мейер-Грефе и его сторонники горой стояли за подлинность вакеровских «Ван Гогов». Но полиция устроила обыск в ателье брата и отца танцора, которые были художниками, и нашла 16 свеженьких «Ван Гогов». Технологическая экспертиза показала, что они идентичны проданным полотнам. К тому же химики выяснили, что при создании «картин русского аристократа» были использованы краски, появившиеся только после смерти Ван Гога. Узнав об этом, один из «экспертов», поддержавших Мейер-Грефе и Вакера, заявил ошеломленному судье: «А откуда вы знаете, что Винсент после смерти не вселился в конгениальное тело и не творит до сих пор?»
Вакер получил три года тюрьмы, а репутация Мейер-Грефе была разрушена. Вскоре он умер, но легенда, несмотря ни на что, продолжает жить до сих пор. Именно на ее основе американский писатель Ирвинг Стоун в 1934 году написал свой бестселлер «Жажда жизни», а голливудский режиссер Винсенте Миннелли в 1956 году поставил фильм о Ван Гоге. Роль художника там сыграл актер Кёрк Дуглас. Фильм заработал «Оскара» и окончательно утвердил в головах миллионов людей образ полубезумного гения, взявшего на себя все грехи мира. Затем американский период в деле канонизации Ван Гога сменился японским.
В Стране восходящего солнца великого голландца благодаря легенде стали считать чем-то средним между буддийским монахом и совершившим харакири самураем. В 1987 году компания «Ясуда» купила на аукционе в Лондоне «Подсолнухи» Ван Гога за 40 миллионов долларов. Три года спустя эксцентричный миллиардер Риото Сайто, который ассоциировал себя самого с Винсентом из легенды, заплатил на аукционе в Нью-Йорке 82 миллиона долларов за «Портрет доктора Гаше» кисти Ван Гога. Целое десятилетие это была самая дорогая картина в мире. По завещанию Сайто ее должны были сжечь вместе с ним после его смерти, но кредиторы разорившегося к тому времени японца не дали этого сделать.
Пока мир сотрясали скандалы вокруг имени Ван Гога, историки искусства, реставраторы, архивисты и даже врачи шаг за шагом исследовали подлинные жизнь и творчество художника. Огромную роль в этом сыграл Музей Ван Гога в Амстердаме, созданный в 1972 году на основе коллекции, которую подарил Голландии сын Тео Ван Гога, носивший имя своего великого дяди. Музей занялся проверкой всех картин Ван Гога в мире, отсеяв несколько десятков фальшивок, и проделал огромную работу по подготовке научной публикации переписки братьев.
Но, несмотря на огромные усилия как сотрудников музея, так и таких корифеев вангоговедения, как канадка Богомила Велш-Овчарова или голландец Ян Хальскер, легенда о Ван Гоге не умирает. Она живет своей жизнью, порождая очередные фильмы, книги и спектакли о «святом безумце Винсенте», не имеющем ничего общего с великим тружеником и первооткрывателем новых путей в искусстве Винсентом Ван Гогом. Так уж устроен человек: романтическая сказка для него всегда привлекательнее «прозы жизни», какой бы великой она ни была.

Григорий Козлов
журнал "Вокруг света"
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