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Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Part 1.

Запись от Про искусство размещена 25.08.2018 в 12:20

Hagia Sophia of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia – the Holy wisdom of God, the Cathedral Church of St. Sophia, Aya-София, Great Church – this most interesting buildings there are many names.

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Former Patriarchal Orthodox Cathedral, later a mosque, now a Museum. The world famous monument of Byzantine architecture, the symbol" золотого century" Byzantium. The official name of the monument today Museum Айя-София.

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figure 3 – Aya-София, 2 – Blue mosque 4 – Topkapi Palace.

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the square between Aya-Софией and the Blue mosque is always crowded. In winter and in summer there are fountains, blooming flowers.

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Here is how the Church writes of the Byzantine chronicler Procopius:" This temple is a wonderful sight to see... He soars skyward to the sky, standing out among the other buildings, like a boat in rough waves of the open sea... It"s all full of sunshine, seems like, is the temple itself exudes this свет".

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the Holy Sophia, which for centuries have attracted attention, there is not only prayed, admired her, it drew.

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the Entrance to Aya-Софию from the West. So it was that we came here not since the morning when there are no people, and at noon, was already a huge queue had to stand.

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This amazing building is a product of the joint work of the architect Isidore of Miletus and Anfimov mathematics Trollskogen. Both are natives of Asia Minor. Brilliant architects for 4 months, worked on an architectural plan of the building. Work commenced on 23 February 532 years, lasted 5 years and 10 months.

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Intended this temple is first of all to create an image of the majestic Emperor. On the construction of the Cathedral was daily employed about ten thousand workers.

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From all over the Empire were brought blocks of marble, gold, silver, ivory, pearls, precious stones. From ancient temples were brought all the best that was in them. From Preconiza delivered white marble, of the Caritas – the green marble of ASOs red, from Phrygia – pink.

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has Used completely new materials. For example, in the cement added oil, lime, cooked in barley water. But special attention deserves another material: for manufacturing used the most precious pearls, topazes, rubies and sapphires. Even the floor of the temple made of precious and semi – precious stones- marble, Jasper, porphyry. They are all laid out in a form-либо pattern.

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the cost of construction was huge. They made, according to ancient authors, 320 thousand pounds of gold, i.e. about 130 tons. For the construction took three of the annual budget of the richest in the world at the time of the state. Aya-София is the most resource-intensive Byzantine building.

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In 1204, the Hagia Sophia suffered from the raids of the crusaders. Part of the wealth was exported to European countries, for example, the magnificent altar made of pure gold was taken out of the sanctuary, its further history is unknown.

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During the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (in 1453) was a hard fate. At the behest of Fatih Mehmed II it was turned into the mosque of Hagia-София. The Turks have erected minarets, the mosaics were whitewashed and the walls were draped with camel leather inscribed in gold with verses from the Koran.

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the Temple was seriously affected: all animals and people in the frescoes and mosaics were smeared with lime, as according to Muslim canons, they should not be depicted. The cross replaced the Crescent, completed 4 minarets. Appeared the Sultan"s bed..

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For a long 500 years Aya-София became the largest after the Kaaba, the Muslim Shrine. Only in 1935, Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern secular Turkey, a special decree converted it into a Museum.

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Finally-то we entered the courtyard of the temple.

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a Little disgusting look four gigantic coarse buttress, built in the X century. But they needed pitching, they stopped the spread of the walls to the outside.

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Before entering the archaeological excavation 1935. This is the portal of the previous Church of Hagia Sophia, built in 415 BC.

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throughout its history, the temple was repeatedly destroyed. 553 year – earthquake; 577 – earthquake; 558 – dome and part of the walls collapsed, destroying all the interior.

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859 – fire@869 semicolon – earthquake; 989 – earthquake...

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998 – a strong fire. 1453 – the building of the temple was attached the minarets, at the same time served стабилизаторами-подпорками.

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In the XVI century, Mimar Sinan strengthened the building of the temple by additional buttresses to stop the spread of the building.

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1847 the threat of collapse. Was the first restoration by Italian architects.

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In the yard there is a cozy cafe, we will look after inspection. And now – in the temple.

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