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"Why student is sweating on the exam." An excerpt from the novel by Vladimir Savchenko, "The discovery of oneself" (1967)

Запись от Про искусство размещена 29.10.2013 в 10:10

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Lecture Professor V.A.Androsiashvili the course" human Physiology . "

- The topic of today's lecture is : why the student is sweating on the exam ? Quietly, comrades! I recommend taking notes - the material on the program ... So, consider the physiological aspects of the situation that everyone present had to endure . There is a test. Student through a variety of cuts of lung , larynx , tongue and lips produces vibrations in the air - is responsible for the ticket . Visual analyzer control it correct answer to the records on a piece and nods examiner. We outline the reflex chain : executive office the second signal system pronounces the phrase - the visual organs perceive a reinforcing stimulus , a nod - the signal is transmitted to the brain and supports the excitation of nerve cells in the desired region of the cortex. A new phrase - a nod ... and so on. This is often accompanied by secondary reflex response : the student gestures , making it a particularly compelling answer .

At the same time themselves operate smoothly and unstrained unconditioned reflex circuit. Trapezius muscles of the back and the broad support of the student body in the state pryamosideniya - just as peculiar to us , as our ancestors walking upright position . The pectoral and intercostal muscles provide the rhythmic breathing . Other muscles are stretched just enough to counteract gravity. Rhythmically the heart contracts , autonomic nerves slowed down the digestive process , so as not to distract the student ... all right .

But through the eardrum and the main membrane ears student receives a new sound stimulus : the examiner asked a question. I never get tired of admiring all future - and I assure you , this admiration is no sadism. Just nice to see how quickly, accurately , given all millionnoletny life experience of ancestors, the nervous system responds to the slightest danger signal .



See : New air vibrations cause the first thing braking old reflex activity - the student stops , often in mid-sentence . Meanwhile, the signals from the auditory cells penetrate into the medulla oblongata , stimulate nerve cells in the rear ice yacht quadrigemina that command unconditioned reflex nastorozhivaniya : the student turns his head to the sound mix examiner ! At the same time the sound stimulus signals are branched in the midbrain , and then - in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex , where it starts to snap a semantic analysis of air shocks .

I want to draw your attention to the high relevance of this analysis plots the location of sounds in the cortex brain - close to the ears. Evolution naturally take into account that the sound in the air spreads very slowly, some three meters per second, nearly commensurate with traffic signals along nerve fibers . But the rustling sound can be lurking tiger snakes hiss or - in our time - the noise of the machine to jump out from behind a corner . You can not lose even a fraction of a second to transmit signals in the brain !

But in this case, the student is not aware of the rustle of a tiger , and given voice calm polite question . Hah , some might prefer a tiger ! I suppose you do not need to explain that the question on the exam is perceived as a danger signal . After all, the danger in the broadest sense - is an obstacle on the way to the goal. In our well-appointed time are relatively rare dangers that hamper the main goals of the living : the preservation of life and health , procreation , stave off hunger and thirst .

Therefore, in the first place are the dangers of second-order : the preservation of dignity, self-respect , scholarships, opportunities to learn and then do interesting work and stuff ... So, the unconditioned response to the danger of the student succeed brilliantly . Let's see how it will reflect it .

The lectures on the biochemistry of you unfamiliar with the remarkable property of ribonucleic acid, which is found in all cells of the brain - to rebuild under the influence of electrical nerve signals consistent layout of their radicals of thymine , uracil , cytosine and guanine . These radicals - the letters of our memory we record their combinations in the cerebral cortex of any information ...

So, picture this: a meaningful temporal cortical areas in question causes the excitation of nerve cells in the brain that are responsible student abstract knowledge . In the cortex, there are weak reply pulses in the surrounding areas , " Yeah, something to read about it ! " That excitement is concentrated in the most hopeful part of the cortex , grabs it, and - horror of horrors ! - There with the help of thymine , uracil , cytosine and guanine in long molecules of ribonucleic acid is written , God knows what , " Alex , drop notes , we are missing the fourth ! " Quiet, comrades, do not be distracted .

Then in the brain begins a quiet panic - or , to put it less metaphorically , total irradiation of excitation. Nerve impulses excite the areas of logical analysis ( may be able to figure out ! ) Cells, visual memory (it can be seen that? ) . Sharpen eyesight , hearing, sense of smell. A student with extraordinary clarity sees the ink stain on the edge of the table, a pile of zachetok , hears the rustling of leaves outside the window, footsteps in the corridor and even muffled whisper , 'Brothers , Alyosha off ... "But that's not all .

and the excitement is spreading to new areas and new crust - danger , danger! - Spreads to the motor centers of the front gyrus , enters the midbrain , the medulla , at last, into the spinal cord ... And here I want to get away from the dramatic situation to sing this soft gray- white outgrowth of two feet in length , penetrating our vertebrae up to the lower back - spinal cord .

spinal cord ... Oh, we are deeply mistaken if we think that it is only an intermediary between the brain and nerves of the body, he is subordinate to the brain and he is able to manage only uncomplicated deliveries of natural reflexes ! It has to say: someone who obeys anyone who runs ! The spinal cord is a more venerable , ancient form than the brain .

He rescued the man back in the days when he did not have a well-developed head, when he , in fact, was not even human. Our spinal cord keeps the memory of the Paleozoic , when our distant ancestors - the dinosaurs - walked , crawled and flew among giant ferns , of the Cenozoic , the time of occurrence of the first monkeys. It selected and tested by millions of years of stored struggle for existence neural connections and reflexes . Spinal cord, if you will, our domestic hearth reasonable conservatism .

What can I say , in our time, this old man who is able to respond to complex stimuli of contemporary reality with only two positions : the preservation of life and procreation - not can help us out all over the place , as in the Mesozoic era . But he still influences - to great effect ! Undertake , for example, show that often it determines our literary and cinematic tastes . What? No , the spinal cord does not know the alphabet , and no specific reflexes for movies. But tell me, why we often prefer detective novels and paintings , as if they were badly placed or written ?

Why is highly respected by many love stories , from anecdotes and gossip to the " Decameron ", read selectively ? I wonder? Why is that interesting? Because firmly recorded in the spinal cord instincts of self-preservation and procreation make us accumulate knowledge - why can die ? - That in case of escape. How and why is it happy , culminating in successors love? How and why it is destroyed ? - That most do not blunder .

Never mind that such a dangerous event in your prosperous life will never be , no matter what took place and love the heirs more than enough! - Know the spinal cord bends the line ... I 'm not trying to , like literary critics , such zashelmovat aspirations of readers and viewers, as base . No, why ? These are healthy aspirations , natural aspiration, full-blooded aspirations. If a cow ever in the course of natural evolution will learn to read, they will also start it with detectives and love stories .

But back to the student , the brain is overawed by the examiner's question . " Ah, young -green " - as if saying to the spinal cord to a colleague apprehended panic excitation signal and takes action. First of all, it sends signals motonevronam whole body : muscles tense up in a state of readiness. The primary sources of muscle power : adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate in the fibers degrade adenosine , respectively acid and creatine with elimination of phosphoric acid and the release of the first portions of the heat ...

Again, I want to draw your attention to the biological feasibility of improving muscle tone. After all, in the ancient sense of danger required rapid, vigorous movements : jump , punch , duck , climb a tree . And since it is unclear in which direction should jump or strike , in all the muscles are ready .

Along with the muscles excited autonomic nervous system begins to command a full kitchen metabolism in the body. Its signals reach the adrenal gland , it throws the blood adrenaline that drives everything. The liver and spleen, like sponges , squeeze in a few liters of blood vessels spare blood. Dilates blood vessels of muscles , lungs, and brain. The most common heart beats , pumping in all organs of the body and blood together with it - oxygen and glucose ... The spinal cord and autonomic nerves of the body preparing the student for the heavy , fierce , protracted struggle for life and death !

but the examiner can not be stunned or even a club marble inkwell . Run away from him, too, is impossible. Not satisfy the examiner , even if the student is full of muscular energy , instead of answering squeeze on the edge of the table handstand ... So all the hidden flurry of activity of the student body is completed useless combustion of glucose in the muscles and the release of heat .

Thermoreceptors different parts of the body send in the spinal cord and brain alarming signals of overheating - and the brain responds to the only possible command: expand the vessels of the skin ! Coolant - blood rushes to the skin ( it causes the by the student reflex cheeks reddening ) , begins to warm the air between the body and clothing. Unfold the sweat glands that though the evaporation of moisture to help the student . Reflex chain , excited matter examiner finally withdrew !

I believe that the conclusions of the narrated how the role of knowledge in the proper regulation of the human body in our complex modern environment , and about their role in the regulation of the student body at the upcoming session, you make yourself ...




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