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Second Odessa vanguard

Posted 27-05-2009 at 18:14 by gans

Sergei Knyazev

Second Odessa Vanguard: space and the prospects

space in the country

                                          "If you fell in the empire to be born,
                                           It is better to live in the province, near the sea. "

Odessa, conceived by its founders as something more than just a city, as the southern gate of the empire, "the third capital", very quickly, within a half-century, during the "free port" has reached or exceeded conceived: it became a worldwide myth, synonymous with success , happiness, beauty.
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truly magical appearance of a truly Mediterranean port - this one will determine the Odessa of the time, amazed everyone, without exception, newcomers. "We enter the garden (it is the City, or Deribasovskoy, garden) - wrote in 1823, a young midshipman, the future Decembrist NA Chizhov - and magical strikes our eyes: imagine that all nations are gathered here to enjoy the coolness of the evening and the fragrant smell of flowers ... Edinozemets great Washington is near bradatyh residents of Cairo and Alexandretta, a descendant of the ancient Normans with rocky cliffs of Norway, a Spaniard from the shores of magnificent Guadalquivir, the denizens of Albion, Provence and Sicily together, it seems to present here the reduction of the universe ... We can say that in Russia there is no other place where we would find such a spectacle ... "
Besides the beautiful architecture, the port, theater and all the gifts of the south and the sea, the city was a powerful investment center.
Here's a piece of the "Instructions", compiled by the Minister of Commerce of Count Rumyantsev, which determined the strategy of action in line with Richelieu national interests.
Multiplies trade, foreign people in Odessa - highlighted in the document - a palpable bring benefit to the State, inasmuch as its capital lead work in people's activities and scatter, so to speak, the excess of the capital villagers. Such a policy - one of the reasons that only the young city became truly a legend already in the era of free zones, one of the best regulated in the world by the end of XIX century, the fourth in the number of inhabitants of the Empire (after St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw). Ethnically it was gaudy and young people in Odessa. Surprised traveling salesmen and just cause "harmony of this demographic conglomerate. In fact, at a small distance from each other - commercial offices, shops, cafes, shops, confectionery, etc. Greek, Turkish, French, Italian, Swiss, German, English, South Slavic, Polish, Jewish and other entrepreneurs. Near tower Orthodox, Catholic, Evangelical-Lutheran churches, synagogues, Karaite kenasa, Mohammedan chapel, clerical institutions of various kinds - and nobody was surprised, do not bother. The atmosphere of religious tolerance and cooperation.
Odessa port was the concluding part of the great historic waterway, the axis of the Kiev-Novgorod Russia, by definition, Academician DS Likhachev - Baltic and the Byzantine Empire. And still today, Ukraine is permeated powerful civilization abroad; long it Dnepr venerated the border of Europe, it went (goes?) Through the Great Novgorod - St. Petersburg - Smolensk - Kiev - Odessa. The famous "Route of the Vikings to the Greeks" - got its completion and was both powerful abroad.
Ukraine compose approximately 7 - 10 large bright regions, more precise at the edges of the country. They largely coincide with the historical and cultural lands (Volyn, Galicia, New Russia, Podolia, Ukraine Slobodskaya), usually including several administrative areas. The size of the regions close to the small European countries. In different regions geoistoricheskaya fate, they were in different countries, sometimes they were significant, the important part, the provinces, the basis (Lvov in Galicia and Poland and Austria, and Kiev in Russia, the Donbass and Kharkiv in the USSR), but never visited remote places, the periphery .
The country has a special concentric zoning. But the band did not diverge from the core of the country, and they go outside, outside, from a distance. The centers of the forces are outside the country and on its edge: the zone of their action outside go inside the territory, weakened and extinguished within. Such is the effect of external cultural and political nucleus and azonal boundary pockets. Austria, the Bosporus, Hungary, Byzantium, Greece, Crimea, Lithuania, Poland, Rome, Russia Moscow, St. Petersburg and the USSR, Turkey, Khazaria, Sweden ... - Sources of waves that have left deep traces in the landscape. From the outside, from outside the territory of the country moving and imminent nomads, glaciers, missionaries, sea, innovation culture, the settlers, "Tatar-Mongols." The territory of Ukraine won, develop, bused in from all sides. Decide the fate of the landscape from afar, from outside, often without seeing or knowing the country.
The country includes a number of existing, separate, specific, clear, with identity and the historical fate of regions and cities - and many of the amorphous area. Country poly does not have a powerful single core, a number of cities comparable to the capital. The main points are on the periphery, periphery occupies the middle of the country.
On the role of the capital claim a half-dozen cities, with the capital - the capital is not quite, but by no means alone. Unique and transport network - it nemonotsentrichna and not closed in Kiev.
Since its founding, Odessa was a cultural project, with its folklore, a special language, renewable tradition. But the essence of Odessa cultural phenomenon in its multi-vector prevalence: here are born and hence leave the great musicians in Moscow 30's moved the whole literary colony (Babel, E. Bagritsky Olesha, V. Kataev, I. Ilf, E. Petrov, S. Kirsanov). In Odessa moving waves of emigration and repatriation, religious groups and religious leaders.
In Soviet times it was not customary to allocate Odessa at the peripheral cut, but these stereotypes sterility has long been overcome: the action Wassily Kandinsky - Odessa - Pompidou Center have been identified magnetic fields Westernism our culture, which raised awareness "of actual reality in time", through which a person produces certainty and the Odessa Art mentality, obviously, is an European "spiritual situation.
Art, born in this unique city, already in the very place of his birth is worthy of interest and attention. Much has been said and written about the famous South Russian school of painting, and only in recent years it has become possible to describe the phenomenon of Odessa beautiful avant-garde.


                                                                                                                   There was silence. And the staircase in the foliage
                                                                                                                   Descends to the evening calm ...
                                                                                                                   And strictly all: the stars in the blue,
                                                                                                                   And the black Duke with outstretched hand.

                                                                                                                                                                                     Yuri Olesha
                                                                                                                                                                                     Odessa, 1917

Apartment Exhibitions in Odessa had their own prehistory. Existed in the city since the late 19 th century to the 20-ies of the 20 th of the picturesque tradition of the avant-garde has been embedded into the European system of cultural exchange and it is quite consistent. Suffice it to reveal a book SZ Lushchik of "Salons Izdebsky and see the names submitted by the authors: Andre Derain, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque and Kees van Dongen, in order to understand -" Beauty "was an event of higher level, of those who retain their influence After many years, despite all the disasters and repression. According to the recollections of the first masters of Russian avant-garde, with many best names and currents are familiar names to Odessa "Salon". Parallel with the exhibitions of the Association of South Russian artists began to have regular exhibitions of "independent", gradually formed the nucleus of the Odessa vanguard. The principle of the mobile, transit development and vzaimoobogoscheniya cultures of different countries and regions began to further feature of the Odessa artistic language.
Artists were fleeing, for various reasons, Odessa, become bearers of "southern" painting, sometimes becoming the head of the new art groups and areas, in other cases, enriching the local schools grafting Odessa, without exaggeration, of European values and culture. They've gone to Moscow Anisfeld, S. Adlivankin, E. Ladyzhenskii. (However, Yefim Ladyzhenskii "returned to Odessa remarkable cycle. In the mid 70's his album" City of my childhood, "was released by the publishing house" Soviet Artist ". In a series of thin colored album, of which there were awarded recognized by the native artists, the album Ladyzhenskaya was special. It lived before the war Odessa twenties and thirties and, respectively, attended the Jewish theme. Not only that - Odessa cycle of paintings in common with primitivism, with Expressionism, Fauvism, and with other currents, crushed by Soviet academicians of socialist realism. Subjective treatment in the past, painting Ladyzhenskaya was modern and leaves the impression of freshness and talent.)
Speaks volumes name is closely associated with Odessa Wassily Kandinsky - years of European artists on it were just an idea of their Russian colleagues. Around the father of abstract art of the circles of artists and formed the latest trends in European painting. First in Russian study on the work of Paul Cézanne was written by a talented poet and artist Odessa Benjamin Babacan. Unfortunately, the young officer was shot in the Crimea during the Civil War. Creativity odessite Stepan Kolesnikov was one of the components of Serbian art in his time, he entrusted the painting cathedrals and the capital's theaters.
  Revolutionary events have affected the fate of many artists, the city left Nathan and Alexander Altmann, Pinchas Litvinovsky, James Luchansky, Il Yang, Hannah Tversky, Menahem Shemi, David Schr. Emigrated in the 20 years Odessites of the number of "Independent" became a significant part of the School of Paris modernism. Names of Odessa P. Nilus, A. Nuernberg (delivshego workshop with Marc Chagall), F. Goziassona, A. Fazini, Olesevicha, Gershenfelda, Maxine, Malik, V. Baranov-Rossine louder sound at the European exhibitions and auctions. Brothers Burliuks actively participated in the creation of traditions of the Ukrainian avant-garde. Such examples are numerous and they all indicate the presence of the Odessa school, best in form and European in spirit.
Of course, after the 20-mi came 30 th, many of Stalinism was able to "break the hand", others turned themselves active creativity went into teaching, science and restoration. But the avant-garde in Odessa is not immediately handed position. Under the leadership of M. Boychuk group of local artists, in particular, Pavlyuk, A. Ivanov, M. Schechtman, creating monumental frescoes in the sanatorium at Hadzibeevsky estuary, in the building of the Palace of the current students. Perhaps, under layers of plaster and later today there are murals of Odessa boychukistov. In Odessa - at the architectural department, in art school taught the keepers of traditions vanguard - Theo Fraerman Mikhail Zhuk, S. Wyspiański student, who lived in Chernigov and Kiev, who left to escape, to Odessa, Nicholas Sheluto. The exhibition, organized in Odessa, on the centenary of the birth of Nicholas Sheluto, gave the opportunity to see how even compelled to abandon the "boychukizma" from sezannizma, he remained thin impressionist.

The fate of Theophilus Borisovich Frayerman. At fourteen years old painter apprentice-entered the art school. Teachers: Kostandi, Ladyzhenskii, Iorini - sensitive and subtle masters taught to love the generous nature of the paint on the south, to disclose the plastic artists of the Renaissance. After four years in his father's suit, pockets of which chargeable only hope for a happy planidu, went to study in Germany.

At the beginning of the century in Germany was famous Ashbe School - Academy of Painting in Munich. But the dry rationalism of Munich academics at odds with everything he had been taught in Odessa. He hated axiomatic stories, wandering from easel to easel. And he went to Paris. Gone, but not gone, laboring on the way to casual work. Two months later, his eyes opened traveler capital artists.
In Paris, Théophile warmed sculptor Aronson. He worked in his studio, helped translate the sculpture in marble. It was a good school, she taught infallibly feel shape, joined to high creativity.
And then the admission to the Paris Academy and studying under the guidance of the famous portrait painter Bonnard. Bonnard was able to send students to the secret art of vigilance. Fraerman accumulated useful korregiruya acquired own vision. Classes at the Academy culminated a rare success: several of his works under the name Teo Fra been taken in Salon. They were purchased by collectors, and in the hands of a young man who often looks in the windows of bakeries eyes of Jean Valjean, fell on his ideas, a fantastic sum. He spent it on the acquisition of the studio and plunged into work. In this workshop, he wrote a lot of paintings whose very existence was not recognized until the end of life. Only one, many years later, he was met by thousands of kilometers away from Paris, It was a small, extremely thin on the color painting "Paris Street.
But it happened after the revolution in Russia, and then in Paris, the young artist exhibited his work in the Salon d'Automne, exhibitions decorators, working on the exposition of the Luxembourg Museum. He met with Serov and Bakst, Voloshin, and Matisse, Rodin and France. Roden and France were members of the jury Autumn Salon, which in 1909 was elected and Fraerman.
Influenced by great artists and humanists finally formed a creative position Frayerman: it drew a simple man and a protest against social injustice. That is why, almost to London, where he lived, the news of the February Revolution, a group of emigrants Fraerman returned to Russia in Odessa.
In these times of fluctuating special committee of artists and cultural workers, which entered and Fraerman, has done a great job of collecting and the attribution of the paintings, which constituted the principal wealth of the current art museums of Odessa.

In one of the antique shops Fraerman saw a Paris street. Price is in the eight figures, it was not very expensive - in those days all were sold in the millions. He runs around friends, get out of papers and took them to the commission store. Recovered from the picture painted in the Paris workshop, - the only thing left on the memory of a distant country artists.
After the opening of the Odessa Institute of Fine Arts Fraerman was appointed professor of painting. He educated a large galaxy of artists, among them Academy Kibrik, Honored Artist of the USSR Professor Postel, artists Otroshchenko, Titov, Ivanov.

Only in the early fifties, he left college, institute and fully devoted himself to writing. Every day, spend many hours behind the easel and creates a series of remarkable works, marked by skill, grace and wit.
But having gone to his head in work, Fraerman not broke, but on the contrary, more and more attracted to people who closely followed the art scene in "Artists should be as much as possible, it is decorated with life - he often said, when it comes to innovative search young - just everything to be real. And they appeared. Powerful and bright, Alexander Atsmanchuk, Albin Gavdzinsky and Yuri Yegorov break through the stale socialist realism. The special atmosphere of the Odessa Art College stimulated by young authors honesty and courage. In Odessa, gathered a unique group of talented teachers: T. Fraerman, L. Muchnik, D. Frumin, M. Todorov, N. Sheluto, M. Zhuk, L. Tokarev, A., A. Shovkunenko, V. Geghamyan, many others. They were able to educate and to lead a whole generation of artists. Artists of the new, second-Odessa vanguard.

Second Odessa avant-garde: the history of the phenomenon
                                                                                                                          "Let's Join Hands, friends, so as not to divide one by one"
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bulat Okudzhava

About this time, artists had already written a lot, but the most concise and essentially said, an outstanding artist-conceptualist Ilya Kabakov: "At the spontaneity and suddenness of the explosion, the multiplicity of causes and weavings, which occurred at the same time and closed in on the phenomenon, which later was called" unofficial art ", 60-years, may be comparable with the 20-mi for years, that is, with the flourishing period of radical Russian avant-garde.
The revival of avant-garde, as a method of how to dissent, in Odessa began in the mid-fifties. Even before the Khrushchev "thaw" after the front, after the Lvov Art Institute, he returned to Odessa, Oleg Sokolov. He did not join the Union of Artists, he worked with the art at the Museum of Western and Oriental art, friends, and much to learn from Theophilus Frayerman. And day and night writing, drawing. First mastered symbolist schedule miriskusnikov, and then carried away by op-art, and then abstract. Whatever you pursue - he did not give up and did not change their ideals. In the 60 years he was at his apartment intellectuals, Oleg Sokolov became a teacher of young artists, teachers are not literal, but rather an example of the lifestyle and attitude to the world.
If during the "thaw" the opposition "Dot" manifests itself in such forms as the debate about impressionism and abstract art at the Polytechnic Institute, the creation of separate monographs on Western painting, then in the 70 years she came into direct conflict with Soviet officialdom. This is an active protest against the cliches and stereotypes, and a growing desire to go to the viewer.
Naturally, the way to the official sponsors of the exhibition halls, practicing "alien" forms of painting and sculpture, was closed. The way forward is found in actions "apartment exhibitions", which gathered a crowd of interested people. The center of this movement were L. Hawk, A. Anufriev, V. Strelnikov, V. Khruschev, SV Sychev. The energy of artists focused on creating images, devoid of any ideological and political. Attention was concentrated on the improvement of pure art, in which the content and form - an object of aesthetic pleasure and not in any way a political comment. This feature is distinguished from movement in Moscow Odessa nonconformists, many of the ideas which they were certainly close.
Just three hours exhibition continues on the fence at the Opera House "Sichik Hruschik. It was in 1967. No longer alive or Stanislaus Sychev, nor Valentine Khrushchev. But the resonance of their daring deed, the first public official organ of the call - was enormous, went far beyond the limits of Odessa, of course, served as an example of the Moscow exhibition, in particular, "Bulldozer". "Sichik Hruschik" remained a legend of Odessa, an echo of a distant time is "violent" the sixties. With this short stocks can keep counting the history of Soviet unofficial art. Luckily, the picture of Michael Rybak, artists supported version of the newspaper "Komsomolskaya spark", the exhibition at the Opera House had been editor I. Belenky, writer, Lviv, journalists Ivanov, E. Golubovskii. Since the exposition dedicated to the historical "fence" exhibition started its exhibition activity and the Museum of Modern Art in Odessa.
Then there were the exhibition of Vladimir Strelnikov y Alla Shevchuk and collector, Gluzman, opened their homes to display collections of friends and artists to collectors Velikanov Kirill, Nikolai Belyakov, but a special activity occurred in the years 1974-75. At the same time the exhibition came to the apartments Vladimir Asriev, Alexandra and Rita Anufrieva, Victor and Ludmila Marinyuka Hawk, collectors and Victor Zlotina Vladimir Salnikov, Helena and seeds Vernik, athlete Eugene Suslov, artists Victor and Valentina Risovicha Khrushchev.
In the house of Alexander Anufrieva, carried away by Van Gogh and Cézanne, cubists-futurists gathered his supporters, who rallied in the informal group, which Luda hawk gave its name - "Nonkoformisty. Of course, the instigators of this company was a couple Shura and Rita Anufrieva! Without their activity, energy, charm, hardly would have been a group of friends-artists, whom we now call the nucleus of the Odessa School 60-x-70-ies.
Rita Shishadskaya Anufrieva became the wife of the late 50's. They lived in a communal house on the corner Osipova Chicherina (according to the toponymy of those years), which was for artists of the Odessa underground something of a Moscow apartment Brick Mayakovsky.
Young Rita was an artist, muse, mistress of the cabin. In the early 60's with such a mentality to live was not easy.
In the first marriage, she married a Czech, and the post-war Czechoslovakia in comparison with the Soviet Union was fully European country. So some time magazines, art albums, music CDs came out, from Prague late 50's. At Osipova, in the apartment Anufrieva, was born a brotherhood of artists of the sixties, which today is already becoming part of history of art of the 20 th century. Rita gave birth to and raised her son Sergei, who became in time one of the pillars of Moscow conceptualism.
And all of these - the years of Osipova, Sverdlov, Solar - the house where she lived, Rita, became salon where artists met with poets, philosophers, with the musicians ... Here were the first exhibitions Odessa apartment, that was a matter not safe. Among the works that adorn the walls were drawings, tapestries, created by the hostess marked taste, exquisite imagination.
Over time, manifested another feature of her nature - Margarita gathered around her youth - and not very talented, obedient and rebellious, sinful rather than righteous. Students of architectural academy, where she taught, graduates and hudgrafa huduchilischa, and even, as they say, non-standard boys and girls. How many of them are obliged to Margarita their destiny - the artistic and not only ...
She was the guardian, curator of the center and the museum of modern art "Tierce". Conceived and implemented its projects included in the history of modern art in Odessa.
Colorful figure Vladimir Asriev, in those years, musician and collector. Exhibitions in his apartment on Bebel were always full of visitors. Contribution to the formation of peculiar cultural phenomenon, and made friends audiences: journalists, and E. F. Kohriht Golubovskii, directed by Kira Muratova, E. Yaroshevsky writers (many of the realities of those years included in one of his central works: "Roman Provincial (P)) and M. Zhvanetsky (nonkonformistkoy was his girlfriend in those years - Hope Haiduk), musicians, and A. S. Terentyev Bedritsky, photographers S. Zhdanov, I. Gershberg, V. Serov. Collection Asriev was transferred to the authorities of the city in exchange for the right of marriage to a filed of England, Victoria Thomas and emigration. Part of the collection was shown during the conference "The Return of the avant-garde", in June 2004 in his London gallery, Vladimir shows many pictures of artists in Odessa, Odessa vanguard archive collects and displays it on your site.

Of course, the intellectual strain of aesthetic justification for carrying Vladimir Strelnikov, special charm brought Valentin Khrushchev, artist-mystery in the paintings which at their outer free picturesque always present a certain symbolic generalization. For many years on Sundays Valentine welcomed the guests and friends, created every week a new personal or group exhibition, then with his friend Eugene Malakhin Yekaterinburg, better known as a teacher of the group "Blue Noses" The Old Man Bukashkina "that Vladimir Naumtsev or anyone of friends from Odessa.
A relationship Odessa and Moscow nonconformists, but they appeared later when Moscow appeared exhibition hall at the Little Georgia. Artists went to the exhibition, became acquainted with the Muscovites: Nemukhin, Rabin, Plavinskaya Waismann, Yakovlev. Vladimir Yakovlev, a lifetime of suffering eye disease, to operate the clinic in Odessa Filatov. When people talk about the Odessa non-conformism, it is not ideological and Protest painting, and very harmonious art, which simply does not fit into the system of socialist realism. In 1976, the headquarters of the Moscow collector Sychev held two informal exhibition of avant-garde of Odessa. Although Basantsu Valery and Oleg Voloshinova able to participate in official announcements and be members of the Union of Artists, but is rather due to their calm nature. Later in Moscow "hill" of graphic artists at the Little Georgian entered Odessa "Muscovites": Vladimir Naumets, Vladimir Sazonov, Hope Haiduk. The only person who had contact with foreigners, however, is quite harmless, was Vladimir Strelnikov: they interested him only as buyers, but later this was the reason for the forced emigration. However, in contrast to the Muscovites, whose nonkoformizm often been painted in dark tones of despair, over Odessites vital spirit of the Southern love of life, irony, intoxicating lightness of being in the most intolerable conditions. Social pathos was unable to influence the "fish" Khrushchev or "beauties" Shopin.
A special atmosphere is created by an active exhibition activity of the Odessa Museum. Established in the 70 years the system of sister cities bring their aesthetic results and Odessans can always visit both classical and modern impressions from Genoa, Oulu, Marseilles or Varna. Especially memorable exhibition Frenchman de Segonzaka, copies of Byzantine mosaics, the sculptor Giacomo Manzu.
Increasing number of avant-garde, non-conformists, as they called themselves. By the already established group of artists joined returning after graduation Oleg Voloshinov, Vladimir Liliya Maksimenko, Eugene Rakhmanin and sculptor Nikolai Stepanov. We participated in the apartment exhibitions and Ruslan Mako, expressive work showed Michael Kowalski, sculpture and ceramics Dmitriev and Alexander the Eugene Godenko, paintings and objects Naumets Vladimir, Igor Bozhko, Andrey Antoniuk, Anatoly Shopin, Michael Cherry, Valery Parfionenko. During these years, created their works Valery Geghamyan, Anatoly Asaba, Anna Silberman, Valentin Matskevich, Eduard Pavlov. Special activity stood Yuri Kovalenko, the artist arranged for several personal exhibitions in the year, choosing as the editorial offices of newspapers and the foyer of cinemas.
And, of course, two powerful artists who were nonconformists in fact, but Leo Mezhberga is manifested in actions, defending the right of the author's vision, Joseph Ostrowski a radical change in the concept of his painting.
Leo Mezhberg wrote: "And now, living in the West about 13 years old when I was asked:" Are you Russian or Ukrainian artist? ", I reply:" I am an artist from Odessa and will always remain, I am part of the Odessa body, sun, sea, sand I can only play our Odessa or incomparable gray color, pours out of me coquinas color and the color of the magical rabbits that play at Odessa homes sheep at sea or washed out clay from the sea coast. "
Effect of apartment exhibitions great, they provided the impetus for the emergence and development in Odessa, monumental painting, influenced the work of those artists who were students in those years, but visited the exhibition and transferred his impressions in the walls of educational institutions and the further work (E. Golubenko, I. Zombie, P. Knyazev, A. Lisowski, Yu Pliss, A., Charon, P. Reidman, V. Hohlenko, Yu Turcan, D. Tiholuz, V. Pavlov). The atmosphere of those years in art school was rough, and examination "rounds" are sometimes reminiscent of apartment exhibitions. Many students for several years sat on each course because of the reluctance to abandon the emerging belief.
Unfortunately, very early, at the height of his creativity, passed away Luda Hawk. This was an irreplaceable loss not only for family, friends, but for all of the Odessa school of painting. Her husband Victor Marinyuk not only carefully preserved her canvases, but also continued their joint search - plastic image of beauty, perfection - in painting and graphics. Fled Lev Mezhberg, Joseph Ostrovsky, Alexander Anufriev, Vladimir Strelnikov, Michael Kowalski, Vladimir Naumets, Lucien Dulfan, Vladimir Asriev, moved to Moscow, Valentin Khrushchev, was killed soon after in Germany Viktor Sazonov. Artists - custom-people and such movements could not but affect the situation of apartment exhibitions. However, there is still communication, hard work in the workshops, the emigrants were transported to the glory of Odessa dissident artists around the world.
Why informal artists 60's - 70-ies of the exhibition staged in flats? Now this question may cause the answer: "They wanted so much. It was an artistic method." Fortunately, most born after the heyday of Soviet stagnation can not imagine that these artists simply had nowhere to show a small circle of friends and their works, except in squalid apartments. Of course, the exhibition in the apartments and shops were closed impressions "for its" their long been familiar with the work. These were precisely the exhibition with a solid, "carpet" zaveskoy, with multiple authors, communal doors were open, but inside are full of visitors - all the intellectuals of Odessa to visit the exhibition: filmmakers and poets, actors, port workers, musicians. Continuing the music played, usually jazz, lay Western magazines and art albums, many quickly became acquainted, lay the beginning for future collections and galleries. Apartments Alexandra and Rita Anufrieva, Vladimir Asriev, Victor Risovicha, Valentina Khrushchev, Felix Kohrihta, Seeds Wernicke became alive the cultural centers of his time, went away new creative impulses and directions. In this form it is already full of cultural events, where people are not just partying, but also to generate ideas and designs embodied in the form of finished products. Bound in the underground system as a typological alternative to official culture, housing the exhibition is self-sufficient organism, not to waste time on the stand staying in a lethargic sleep Soviet society. But it was the subject of underground pressure and attacks by the agonizing control system for restless creative units and radicals.
Activities of non-conformists from the outset provoked predictable and naturally unfriendly attention from the authorities. Not that the artists a blanket sewn by "terry anti-Soviet" - a direct, serious conflict with the regime of their activities is clearly slipping, well, somehow does not suit them had severe Role fighters against tyranny. But if the authorities and found "abstract" blessed eccentricity, then in any case, just suspicious. Not only because of an unauthorized exhibition activities, there were some potentially dangerous contacts with foreign nationals, although there who will decide that the motivation of art critics from the gendarmerie.
In Ukraine swept repression associated with the dissident and national movements. For his uncompromising position were persecuted and some artists from other cities, where the vanguard was present in the form of individual pieces or single stock - Paul and Elizabeth Bedzir Kremnické in Uzhgorod, Kiev - Alla Gorskaya, Opanas Zalivaha, Lyudmila Semykina Sergei Paradjanov, Peter Belenok, Irina Makarova-Vysheslavsky, Lviv - Carl Zverinskaya; in Cherkassy - Edward Gudzenko, Vladimir Shirokov, in Dnipropetrovsk - Vladimir Makarenko, in Zaporozhye - V. Zaruba, in Kharkov - Vagrich Bahchanyan and many that have not logged in, this is far from complete list . Or consider Odessa: emigrants Anufrieva Alexander and Vladimir Strelnikova deprived of their opportunity to display and make Valentine Khrushchev and Stanislaus Sychev. Yuri Yegorov recalled that by giving one picture at the private exhibition in the morning to learn that he has hung solo exhibition in Art Gallery will not take place.
It is therefore very important was the support of artists of the older generation, scorched by war - Yuri Yegorov, Alexander Atsmanchuka, Gennady Malyshev ... This spiritual, moral support, the ability to exhibit their work at informal shows in the great hall of the youth newspaper Komsomolskaya spark "in those years was not less valuable than the initial purchase (and they were on the "apartment" exhibitions).
Painting Odessa artists - participants of apartment exhibitions, refers to those values that are not measured by titles, or commercial success. Real art, not blurred by any an overgrowth of ideology - a true national treasure, the living and eternal. Non-conformist artists of Odessa as part of a general cultural phenomenon of underground dissident, became an alternative to the official ideology of Socialist Realism art. Second Odessa vanguard was politizirovovan, like Moscow. In Odessa was searching plastic language and methods of expression. Features such as seclusion, intimacy, trust the audience, "proficiency" paintings, professionalism, "modernist" tendencies - on the verge of abstraction, conventions, color, light from the work, the lack of narrative stories, but instead "motives", imagery, plasticity, contemplation, romantic worldview. It was the weight (the number of "non-conformist" artists and the artistic breadth of shares) and systemic phenomenon in contrast to Kyiv, Lviv and other Ukrainian cities. With regard to the underground in those cities, then we can talk about lonely figures and anecdotal evidence, and only in Odessa, he, in fact, announced itself as a conscious communication. The merit of Odessa masters is that they fill the gap between initiated in the twentieth century avant-garde and contemporary world art. A number of exhibitions in Europe, confirmed the high level of skill.
If we talk about the personal part of the Soviet avant-garde artists of the second, it can serve as samizdat edition of the 80-year "Odessa artists with wonderful photoportraits and reproductions of paintings, produced in small editions of Moscow photographer Valentin Serov.
Here is a list of artists represented in it: Oleg Sokolov, Yuri Yegorov, Alexander Anufriyev, Vladimir Strelnikov, Lyudmila Hawk, Victor Marinyuk Valentin Khrushchev, Yevgeny Rakhmanin, Nikolai Morozov, Vladimir Liliya Maksimenko, Igor Bozhko, Alexander Стовбур, Valery Basanets, Michael Kowalski, Serge Knyazev, Vladimir Naumets, Nikolai Stepanov, Alexander Dmitriev, Hope Hayduk, Vladimir Sazonov, Victor Risovich, Michael Cherry, Evgeni Godenko, Ruslan Mako, Anatoly Shopin.

Of course, here also need to add the names of Leo Mezhberga and Joseph Ostrowski, Valerie and Alexandra Gegomyana Roitburd, Nikolai Novikov and Basil cow, Valeria Parfionenko and Alexandra Lisowski, Stas Zhalobnyuka and Helen Schekino.
Exhibitions of works from the collection of Vyacheslav Vyrodova the spring of 2008 in the Kiev Museum of Russian Art and the fall of that year at the Museum of Western and Eastern Art in Odessa made a big impression on the public, scholars and the press. The value of the second Odessa became the vanguard of the manifest with increasing force, its influence is growing before our eyes. Save this art, to clarify its meaning and significance, to bring his clean image to the greatest possible number of people - in this task and duty of our contemporaries.

Nowadays, it is clear that the role of nation states is reduced, and the society is rapidly atomiziruetsya and its problems can no longer be solved by retreating state. In connection with the irreversible devaluation in the mass consciousness of political ideologies as the only viable form of association is non-hierarchical or network structuring of fundamental, basic values. One of these advocates art, its role is growing, as part of its speakers, the city policies, one of which has long become Odessa - a living myth of the capital of the world itself.
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  1. Old Comment
    I should be reading
    Posted 27-05-2009 at 23:56 by SAH SAH is offline
  2. Old Comment
    Allena's Avatar
    Thank you, gans, that published the article again. Brilliant in all material respects.
    Posted 02-06-2009 at 12:00 by Allena Allena is offline
  3. Old Comment
    Cat-like good work.
    Posted 04-06-2009 at 21:41 by Jasmin Jasmin is offline
  4. Old Comment
    gans's Avatar
    Originally Posted by Allena View Post
    Thank you, gans, that published the article again. Brilliant in all material respects.
    Yes. Conceptual such. And to understand the art of Ukraine is of great importance.
    Posted 05-06-2009 at 15:29 by gans gans is offline
  5. Old Comment
    gans's Avatar
    Originally Posted by Jasmin View Post
    cat-like good work.
    So Khrushch same.
    Posted 05-06-2009 at 15:31 by gans gans is offline

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