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Some features of the picturesque Italian masters of the first half of XVII century.

Запись от Евгений размещена 19.02.2011 в 07:45
Обновил(-а) Евгений 19.04.2011 в 22:23

O. K. Pichugin
Relevance marked in the subject header associated with the problems of assessment and attribution of works of art. Interest in her has intensified not only because of purely scientific problems faced by the staff of museums both in Russia and abroad. Activation of the antique market and sophisticated counterfeiting industry, is gaining momentum in recent decades, experts confront increasingly complex problems whose solution is possible only through deep-developed theoretical basis, based on study characteristics formopostroeniya and technical-technological methods of paintings by old masters.

The main directions of such studies have been formulated in the writings of Ernst Berger [1935], AA Rybnikova [1927; 1937], L. Feinberg [1937] DI Kiplika [1927]. In the postwar period in Europe and America, a number of research centers, conducting technical and technological research of museum collections. There are such specialized journals that publish the results of these studies, as «The National Gallery Technical Bulletin», published by the Research Institute of the National Gallery in London. A first attempt lessons of the material [see: Hamsik, 1982]. In Russia in 1995, the State Tretyakov Gallery in conjunction with the union "Magnum Ars," an annual conference devoted to problems of assessment and attribution.
This work is a result of many years of studying exposure of major Russian and foreign museums: the Hermitage Museum Pushkin Fine Arts, the Metropolitan Museum (New York), the National Gallery (Washington), art museums of Brussels and Vienna. Another important prerequisite were technical and technological research works of Western European painting from the collection of Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, held for fifteen years, T. Maximova, researcher sector expertise of the Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage (Moscow), which allowed visibly touch the art practice of Italian artists we are interested in the period [see: Pichugin, 2002, 56 - 61].

Turning to the topic indicated in the header, note that the pictorial and stylistic devices typical of works by Italian artists of the first half of XVII century., Evolved over a long period of time. In this case, we used the enormous theoretical and practical experience that has accumulated Italian painting during the previous two centuries 1.

In the second half of XVI century. Titian's artistic heritage has created a new attitude toward color. Appeared previously unknown methods of creating "a clearly defined overall color tone" of the picture, "the color environment, generating objects" [Volkov, 1989, 196]. Giving preference to the color harmony paintings, artists abandoned the principle of balancing the bright spots of the spectral and began to create color according to the laws of colors. It is widely have been used so-called "improper" color quality, playing an active role in the contrasts and give a special richness coloring [see: Ibid, 208].

These innovations have been associated with both the historical conditions that determined the aesthetic views of the era, and with the techniques, in particular the widespread use of oil painting as the main pictorial material. Thus, at the beginning of the XVII century. established a new range of beautifully-plastic problems, which defined the identity of Italian works of this period.

Despite the diversity of selected regional schools of art and creative individuals can distinguish several general typological features that are invariably present, if not all, the vast majority of Italian paintings of this time. This is a problem in the form of connection with light and shade, rakursnym build, format and size canvases, and finally, the color of its combination with light and form.

The problem of form was the most important of all the problems emerging in this time period. The transfer of bodies, especially the human body in all its complexity, expressiveness and beauty became the main task was working on the Italian master. People is for them under intense scrutiny. Rich traditions of Renaissance art and the XVI century Italian master gave great freedom in constructing the human figure, the ability to flawlessly in terms of anatomical features to portray the richness of postures, movements and gestures. Figures show a different, sometimes extremely complex ways. Hidden dynamics rakursnogo build the form in conjunction with the methods of typing and compilation of the exterior of the characters gave the Italian paintings of particular grace and understated beauty. It should be noted at this programmatic failure not only of specific individual portrait likeness, but also from a psychological interpretation of the images of individual characters. Striving for typing, compilation, internal significantly was one of the important features of Italian art. Expressive gestures, postures representative in conjunction with restrained force of the movement of figures have become an important compositional techniques of Italian masters of the period.

Hence the special interest in the transfer of plasticity of the human body, methods and techniques, allows for certain amount of transfer and development in space. Of course, that in this way the plastic was forced to search for artists accentuated attention to the problem of light and shadow and lighting in their relationship with the form. In order to concentrate the viewer's attention on what is happening, artists limits the depth of space behind the paintings of figures and increased the size of the shape of characters relative to the format of the picture. The action was placed on the "forefront", thus approaching the maximum audience. In this case, the painters have tried to maximize the lateral directional lighting to reinforce the impression of objects, but also injected a dark background, which allows the highlight, and thus bring closer to the audience the key figures and separate areas of space. Italian artists are already at the turn of XVI-XVII centuries. virtually abandoned the quiet uniform lighting "day" diffused light incident several side or top of the viewer, characteristic of Renaissance art. Renaissance method enables you to associate the shape of foreground with a background as a tone, and with a line. The form in this system, transmitted light tones within a single local color stains. Painting in general have a special svetonostnostyu and built within a light tone scale.

By the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries. the modeling techniques of creating the cut-off are beginning to change. There are various ways to construct forms to create carnation and draperies. The most common and widespread technique for writing carnation was the use of the system of building space: a dark warm brown shade, zone one or two cool and different degrees teploholodnosti tones with a slightly greenish or bluish tint, and finally, the light is usually warm under the cover lacquer, slightly yellowish tone. Thus, in general, carnation lined up within a warm, golden-brown monochrome color range. Light, subtle modulation of color tone wonderfully conveyed a sense of warmth, softness and elasticity of human flesh. The body, face and hands are usually lined up in the boundaries of the scheme. An example of such formopostroeniya can serve as the Hermitage painting Dzhentilleski Orazio (1563-1639) "Cupid and Psyche" 2.

However, the various parts of the body characters were a hierarchy of relationships between lightness. Often, the brightest light flashes did not face, and breasts shown. Accordingly, there were present and the darkest shadows, concentrated in the upper arm, underarm, hand, depending on the position of the hands. Shadow on the face or other parts of the body in relation to the most illuminated and the darkest part of the figure would remain within the middle and sometimes bright tones. Accordingly, if the leg or arm of the character had been pulled into the pictorial space, they went into a zone of warm undertones, plain brown, ocher-red or yellowish-brown.

Carnation shapes of the second plan also remain entirely within the average, and sometimes dark and warm tones. In this case, the wealth created by a halftone ability to be semi-transparent oil paint in thin layers. In this case, white, laid on the warm dark soil or podmalevku, by law, the chromatic contrast coldish acquired various shades depending on the thickness of the paint layer, usually greenish or bluish [see: Rybnikov, 1935, 46]. Thick smears of white opaque, in contrast, had a strong showing ability, and these sites are perceived by most bright and vivid.

Impression volume is usually associated with the number of semitones. The greater the number of semitones able to reproduce the artist, the more clear and rounded the image. Caravaggio in his "young man with a lute" (State Hermitage Museum) 3 in the construction of person a young man used a system consisting of four tones. With respect to each other, these gray-scale plots varying degrees of lightness and teploholodnosti hue. In general, the decision to bare areas of the body lies within a golden ocher-gamma.

The second way to construct forms of nudity was a decrease in light tones and work primarily in the mid and dark tones. In this case, the picture is the predominance of shaded areas. Lighted area occupies less space and become coldish tone. Increase the area of ​​the picture occupied by the cold gray-blue and brownish-gray tones, and the overall tone of the picture is somewhat muted, evening or night, as if illuminated by moonlight. As an example, refer to the Hermitage painting by Pietro Testa (1611-1650) "Introduction to Mary in the Temple 4. Note also that in certain periods of his creative work as Guercino and the late Caravaggio.

Another way to create forms of carnation is to reduce the number of semitones. Shadow and light in this case played a roughly equal role and occupy approximately equal parts in the composition. Sometimes the shadow areas predominated. However, the region has been dramatically narrowed semitones, making the shape of the body acquired a somewhat flattened appearance. Shadows at the same time becomes dense and cold. An example of such work can serve as a picture "Shepherd, who plays with the cat" from the collection of Sevastopol Art Museum, attributed to Tommaso Salina (ca. 1575-1625, Rome) 5. When writing a drapery hanger Italian masters of the first half of XVII century. have made the color dynamics of the composition, and their cut-off Modeling was carried out within a single tone color stains. At the same importance in the existing method was unifying character shadows. Same for lightness and color tone are laid usually like to write the background, and individual spatial plans and areas of dense shadow. He created that general framework, which harmonized the individual, often contrasting color stain.

Development of hue within a single local color stains, as a rule, application of active bright color halftones, such as red or blue, and then lightening it by adding a whitewash in the lighted areas and in areas utemneniya dark tones with dark lessirovok, often applied with colored lacquer . So wrote the bright blue, red, yellow draperies. Very thick and dark shadows are usually tinted with the color of dark background, and often represent areas prolessirovannogo dark soil. This color solutions were added to the picture, on the one hand, the required voltage and create the effect of the internal dynamics of leaf color, but on the other - made it possible to combine the compositional balance and contrast in nature color spots.

All of the above methods of constructing forms implemented through the establishment of a special pictorial structure, where each element, including the ground, underpainting, registration, glaze and coats, played an important role in creating a beautiful whole.

A huge role in creating the painting was assigned to the ground. He carried not only the technological features, providing a link between the base and layers of beautiful, but organically affect the nature of the picturesque whole. At the beginning of the XVII century. in Italian painting used colored soils - gray, sand-and-ocher, brown, different shades: from light brown to reddish-brown and dark-brown slightly umbristo coldish tones. Introduction colored soils provided a huge role for all, without exception, the characteristics of the picturesque whole.

If the soil was gray or light ocher, he usually played the role of light halftones in podmalevke. The artist had planned light whitewash, and the shadows are usually dark gray or brown colors, leaving the area halftone unpainted (a primer).

At dark ground work was done in podmalevke in highlights and midtones are usually white or other bright opaque colors. Soil remained uncovered in the areas of dark shadows sometimes down to the final stages of work. On the set of Italian paintings of this time, you can watch parts of the ground, shine through the thin layer of glaze or naked in the results of previous restorations. By mid-century, when artists began to prefer sweeping cursive, dark soil often remained unpainted in the joints of different colorful spots and in areas of shadow.

As an organic part of a pattern of color, colored soils provided generalizing effect on the picturesque whole, giving the individual a bright color spots are the color characteristics, which, on the one hand, increased the tonal contrast of the bright spots, but on the other - eliminates variegated coloration and gave a restrained nobility, ranking color within a single color series. Another important property of colored soils relate to work on them white. In thin layers of white, superimposed on a dark ground, take coldish greenish or bluish tint, as mentioned above. Thus, it should be noted that colored soil is at the Italian painters of the first half of XVII century. an integral part of the picturesque process, participating in constructing a picture from the beginning until its completion.

Another important part of the structure pattern is underpainting. It is the first stage of painting. In podmalevke artist kept working on the form, specifying the composition, the location of the individual figures, checking the ratio of masses of color, identifying and building volume. As mentioned above, light gray and ocher ground work was done in podmalevke in lights white or other bright opaque colors. Shadows prokryvalis dark glaze. Thin layers of white, deposited on the gray ground, created by law to contrast the warm light, slightly pinkish semitone.

On a dark ground of various shades of brown tones work podmalevke conducted in highlights and midtones. In the dark shadows remained unclosed tons of soil. At sites of lights body color (usually white, if it was about writing a carnation, or colored body color - red, yellow or blue in the picture hanger) is imposed fairly easily, layer, the density of its corresponding average semitone. Lots of shadows, as already mentioned, remained in reserve (open) in the color of dark soil.

The next stage of work on the picture is a residence permit. The author led the work, clarifying and, if necessary, adjusting these or other details of the shape on the sites and carnation colored draperies. Continued identification of subjects developed illuminated areas of the form by multiple layers of paving their corporeal body color, when it came to writing the body, or color, if you write draperies. At the stage propisok picture is almost finished character.

The last two stages - work in podmalevke and registration - are the most expressive in terms of an individual author's technique, which consists of the special characteristic of individual artists how to paint application, its consistency, strength, character stroke. Arisen in this beautiful texture to many artists can be a kind of "calling card" that characterizes the individual reception of their work. However, there were some general trends fakturopostroeniya.

Smooth on the whole surface of the paintings of the century has a 1620-m years. was more lively and dynamic. Caravaggio at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries.


M., 1989.

M., 1927.

1982. Nr. 44. S.

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