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The lady of Elche

Запись от Про искусство размещена 06.07.2018 в 05:14

There are a sufficient number of works and objects of antiquity that are on the verge of understanding the @- as it was done in those days? Many of the works now it will be very difficult to reproduce technologically. Some of them a modern forgery, and the other part is a constant debate on the possible origin of.



Here"s a statue of a beautiful lady discovered in 1897 near the city of Elche. It is unclear, as in the IV century BC, people were able to create such a perfect work of art. And, in fact, some argue that on the head of the statue is clearly what-то device.

Sculpture was found August 4, 1897 by a young worker, Manuel Campello Escapism (Manuel Campello Esclapez).

a few weeks after the discovery of the artifact, the owners invited to inspect the French archaeologist Pierre Paris which is acknowledged for its historical authenticity and advised the Louvre about the urgent need to purchase the most valuable monument. As a result, the sculpture was sold to France for a very high amount of 4 000 francs and taken to Paris, where her demonstration made a tremendous sensation and opened up for scientists a hitherto unknown page of ancient art.



the Statue is dated to the fourth century BC, is a polychrome stone bust of a woman (the latter disputed), (in the Spanish version of Wikipedia there is an indication that the remnants of paint on the lips, etc. for them it is not disputed) in a rich dress and with an extremely elaborate hairstyle. To the rear of the hole indicates that the object could be used as funerary urns (in the Spanish version of Wikipedia there is a mention of the study of the remains of the burial, which denied the version about a fake, as these are the remains corresponds to an estimated time period) .



" Довольно subtle understanding of the canons of Hellenistic sculpture has led some researchers to suggest that the sculptor was trained in one of the Greek colonies of the Western Mediterranean" @- according to Wikipedia, in the Spanish version says that the Lady of Elche was found in the place, which, according to archeologists, was almost surrounded by the river, and this island was a Greek colony, if I correctly translated the text..." Согласно another point of view, the monument reflects the principles of Punic art, and depicts a woman — none other as the Phoenician goddess Astarte" @- according to Wikipedia.



In 1995 put forward the hypothesis that the Lady of Elche — fake, made under the influence of modernism, about the time when she was discovered. However, this theory has not gained General acceptance. The 2005 technical analysis of the coating of stone and the remnants of the pigment of the statues showed the ancient date and according to other known monuments of Iberian sculpture.



In 2005, the polychrome analysis of the particles showed that the age of the pigments and layer structure of the primer corresponds to the originally intended age sculpture @IV - V. days.uh. In 2011 the same author, Maria Pilar Luxan analyzed microparticles hollow back of the sculpture, electron microscopy and spectrometry established that particles of ash of human bones belong to the Iberian period, which leads to the conclusion that the statue was used as a funerary urn in the Iberian period and confirms its antiquity.



Spain was to conduct a survey-голосование among the population; were asked to name the most beautiful woman which could serve as the standard of beauty. The majority of votes were given to the Lady of Elche.



the Burial of the Lady was found burned armor, weapons, and other items that could belong to a war with a high social position, the analysis of the remains showed that the warrior was a woman.

also, there are indications that the buried warrior was deified, it could be the Queen-жрица (used literally the word" ведьма" http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dama_de_Baza

it is Known that the tunica Queen-ведьмы-война was painted in blue color.

Reconstruction of decorations:



In the classic textbook of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Mashkin" История ancient Rome" this remarkable monument are uniquely related to duponceau to the pre-Roman period of the history of ancient Spain.

see Also A. L. Mongait" Археология Western Europe. The bronze and iron ages" @- quote,
" На the basis of written sources and images on many painted vessels, we can imagine the appearance and way of life of the Iberians. They were dark-haired. On Iberian coins depicted the head with frizzy, curly hair. Their clothes (influenced by Greek and Phoenician fashion) consisted of a tunic, strapped to the waist belt, wide cloak, sandals made of leather or reeds. Riders and warriors wore high leather boots.

Fabric for clothes are often embroidered or decorated with applications.

a Penchant for jewelry from the Iberian women was very strong. We gave preference to the fanciful," Baroque" forms.
Women wore elaborate high hairstyles and headwear like a turban, conical tiara, tiaras, braided belts, etc. are Particularly complex and rich, the diadem depicted in the famous" Lady of Elche": a huge side wheels tiaras, which has obviously been removed braids, made of metal and ornamented.

Earrings are large and round, discoid, long — in the form of falling tears, as a rule, ornamented. Bracelets and Bracers of the most simple forms. Iberians, like the Celts wore torques, usually made of coiled wire. Very diverse necklaces — is a colorful ribbon with round pendants, sets, ribbed polychrome beads of glass paste and a metallic spherical beads, etc. and a Variety of decorations belt buckles and brooches. The most common so-called the Spanish circle brooch. They consist of rings, rod and needle. Most of the instances shown the simplest form. However, in some cases, it is enriched by many additional details and silver inlay. In Celtic-иберских areas occur brooch, decorated with images of horses.



the art of the Iberians developed, no doubt, under the influence of Greek art and the East, however, local foundations are very strong, and can talk about his independent appearance in the V century BC 117 Attempts to create a periodization based on purely art historical analysis, was unsuccessful, as Iberian art stores for a long time archaic features (frontal, stiffness) and schematic images. Garcia Bellido suggested the following periodization: I — period — Greek provincial (V—III BC ); II — fully developed local style (the end of III—I BC ); III — Roman provincial (BC — IV century ad ) 118. Archaeological discoveries of recent years and further study of Iberian art have shown that this chronological scheme is very controversial. In addition, more and more clear is that Iberian art was not uniform in different regions remained significant differences in the ratio of local and borrowed hell.



Large sculpture is found only in the South-востоке the Iberian Peninsula. Here a large group of zoomorphic sculptures in the V— IV centuries BC lions, bears, wolves, bulls, and sphinxes, and beasts with human heads. In many parts of these images still has a strong Eastern influence, and some even have direct prototypes in the Syrian and Hittite art. The most ancient (550—450 BC ) the sculptures of this group — so-called beach of Balazote (province of Albacete), which is a sitting bull with the bearded human face, the Sphinx with a woman"s face (Albacete)

Sculpture depicting a man more realistic than animal figures. Here is noticeably stronger Greek influence, and some of them are probably made in the Greek colonies. Local works are very numerous — only in the sanctuary of Sierra-де-лос-Сантос they found about 300. They retain archaic character until the Roman conquest.

a Masterpiece of Iberian art is considered as the already mentioned so-called" Lady of Elche". It is a female bust made of limestone with traces of polychromy height 0, 54 m (i.e. approximately the value of nature). The sculpture combines realistic elements with the solemnity and magnificence of the image. The charm of a beautiful face enhanced by the luxury of hairstyles and jewelry. Sculpture is, obviously, a portrait of a-то rich woman. This is undoubtedly a Spanish piece, though it feels influenced by classical Greece. Bust,-видимому, refers to the V century BC However, in the literature there is another date — III century BC, based on the fact that he was found with Iberian ceramics this time.

is also Famous for the figure of a priestess from Sierra-де-лос-Сантос (Gran Dama d"El-Cerro). She represents the statue (height 1.35 m), depicting a standing upright the woman with the Cup in his hands. Luxury attire and decorated with a tiara hairstyle it is close to the" Lady of Elche".

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