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History of the umbrella

Запись от Про искусство размещена 17.05.2018 в 09:53

As an umbrella, a symbol of power and greatness, has become accessory, protects from rain.

Hiding under the big umbrella from the rain, many never thought about its history. And, in fact, an umbrella of more than three thousand years.

the Symbolism of the umbrella in ancient times.

the status of the pioneers of the umbrella immediately claimed by several ancient civilizations — Egyptian, Chinese, and Assyrian. For all that initially, the progenitor of the umbrella looked very simple @- a bunch of palm leaves or feathers attached to a long stick. However, over time this design evolved into a symbolic and a status thing. Honorable than were a person, it has, the more impressive was the umbrella according to size and decoration.

Umbrella in Assyria, 730-727 BC

For example, among the titles of the ruler of Burma"s mandatory mentioned that he was" master of the Big Umbrella" and the ruler of Siam declared themselves as" the Lord 24-х umbrella." They made a dome like the roof of the Eastern pagoda, decorated with jewels and gold embroidery.

Antique vase painting.

Only the pharaohs, emperors and their entourage had the right to use the umbrellas, which were in height to one and a half meters and weighing up to 2 kilograms. Cane and spokes were made of bamboo and cloth — of impregnated with a special solution of thick paper or palm leaves and feathers of birds.

Author: Suzuki Harunobu.

the kind of accessory from the rain, which is used today, we owe to the Chinese, as they 20-х years of our era, invented a folding umbrella made of rice paper stretched over a wooden frame.

a Little later, parasols became popular in India, where they were determined by the degree of wealth. The richer the person was, the more umbrellas carried after him by his entourage. In Tibet a special place in white or yellow umbrellas symbolizing spiritual greatness. And umbrellas of peacock feathers symbolized the secular power.

over time umbrellas from the East migrated to Europe. First in Ancient Greece and Rome, where he immediately became very popular. By the end of the 13th century the umbrella became a symbol of papal authority, and in the 15th century it image used on personal coats of arms of Popes and the emblem of the Church of Rome, that emphasized the absolute power of the PAP.

Chancellor Pierre Segle with an umbrella. (1670). Author: Charles Le Brun.

In the XVII century the umbrella became popular in Western Europe and especially in France, as accessory to protect from the scorching sunlight and called" parasol", literally @-" a shield from the sun." French umbrellas were made from waxed canvas and bone handles. Thanks to the French this item has become a fashionable accessory decorated with ribbons and ruffles.

Author: Anthony van Dyck"s" Portrait of the Marquise Elena Grimaldi" (1623)./ Author: John Singleton Copley," Portrait Of Mary Tappan" (1763).

One of the first owners of designer umbrellas were Queen Marie Antoinette. It was accessory with the spokes of whalebone, which had a weight half a kilogram. At her court were introduced even a special position @- honorary" sintonizar".

Author: Jean Rance" Vertumnus and Pomona" (1710)./ Author: Francisco Goya" The Parasol" (1788).

At the beginning of the XVIII century in Paris constructed the first folding umbrella, which was of length 30 centimeters. The master processing of wood, bone, stone, arranged between a competition: who better to decorate the handle of an umbrella.

Mechanics also tried to contribute to the design of the umbrella," пряча to handle the most unexpected things: a pipe, keys, writing utensils. Umbrellas with secrets could be a lance, a purse or a capacious flask. What is the use of not only trying to come up with the umbrellas... It served as protection, a cane and a... громоотводом."

About how the umbrella became an accessory from the rain.

In 1770, in the history of the umbrella there was a radical change thanks to traveler and experimenter John Hanvey @- Englishman, always bearing it with you.

Promenade in the rain.

He replaced the lace covering on more practical and a thick cloth and began to take regular walks in the London rain. Over him joking and laughing pedestrians, though not for long: it soon became clear that this invention @- a real godsend for those who do not have their own crew.

However, in Europe the umbrella as an accessory from rain, could not settle down and to displace the usual raincoat, which was made to wrap in bad weather. The puritans, for example, believed" что to hide from the rain means to break the plans of God, his Jerusalem on the person"s head".

the Appearance of umbrellas in Russia.

In Russia, the umbrella appeared only in the late XVIII century — together with French fashion. And despite the fact that the umbrella came from France, the French version of its name —" parasol" — in Russia not caught on.

the Word" zonnedek" in Russia" delivered" from Holland Peter, where it is under Maritime terminology it meant the" навес from the sun" used on ships. It is interesting that in Russian language this" sandek" first turned into" umbrella", and eventually the end was cast aside and turned the word" umbrella".

"Portrait of Countess S. L. Stroganova". (1864). Author: Makovsky, Konstantin Yegorovich.

Thanks to the trendsetters umbrella, beginning with the eighteenth century, became an integral part of many portraits of women, written by both Russian and foreign artists.

In the sun. Portrait Of Nadezhda Ilyinichna Repina. (1900). Author: Ilya Repin.

portrait of a woman. (1903). Author: Fedot Sychkov.

a Rain umbrella. (1883). Author: Maria Bashkirtseva.

the lady with the umbrella. Author: Claude Monet.

Author: John Singer Sargent.

Author: Gregory Frank Harris.

In history as not only trying humanity this accessory use. For example, in the United States in the mid-twentieth century, women"s umbrella was offered as a means of protection from attacks on the street: these umbrellas after a simple push on the handle, releasing a cloud of tear gas in the direction of the villain and simultaneously turned on the siren.

And over the years, umbrella has continued to evolve and gain new functions and features. However, whatever they tried to improve, they still remain an indispensable protector against the elements. And their story isn"t over.

"Rainy day".(1877). Author: Gustave Caillebotte/" Umbrellas".(1881-1886). Author: Pierre Auguste Renoir.


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