Вернуться   Форум по искусству и инвестициям в искусство > Дневники > Про искусство

Оценить эту запись

"Poem in stone" @- Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir

Запись от Про искусство размещена 15.05.2018 в 10:01

"a Poem in stone": Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir, which eclipsed all the temples built to him.



From-за the abundance patterns of the white-stone carvings that cover the facade of this Cathedral, it is called" the precious casket"," stone carpet"," stone poem." Its rich carved decoration it outshines, perhaps, the temples built to him in Russia.

Vladimir-Суздальское the Principality in the reign of the Prince of Vladimir Vsevolod the Big Nest reached the Zenith of its glory." Suzdal region, at the beginning of the XII century — provincial North-восточный corner of the Russian land in the beginning of XIII century is a Principality, strongly dominant over the rest of Rus "" (V. O. Klyuchevsky). And the embodiment of that glory was to become the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius.

Prince, who received at baptism the Christian name of Dmitry, decided to build a new temple in honor of its patron, St. Demetrios. The construction of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral had on the interval between the 1194-1197. the Church was Built by the best Russian masters, as a building material for walls using white limestone.

From the distant Byzantine city of Thessalonica was brought to the temple built of a rare shrines:" доску skeleton" @- the icon of St. Demetrius, and the silver embossed ark" сорочкой" – piece garment of the Martyr with his blood.


the Icon of St. Demetrios.

Before the battle of Kulikovo, these relics were taken to the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, where they still are kept in the Vladimir Cathedral now there are only copies.

In 1237, the Church was plundered by Tatar-монголами, then he has experienced several robberies and fires. But the biggest damage was inflicted in 1837—1839 years, when Nicholas I visited the Cathedral and saw in what condition he is in, promptly to restore it. But the" connoisseurs of Russian style", who undertook the job, instead of restoring the defaced temple, and he began to collapse.

1919, the Church was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Vladimir Museum. Its limestone walls were rapidly destroyed, however, for a long time to save the temple were not taken, the reconstruction was able to conduct only in 1941, before the war.

To the next stage of works for the conservation of the stone walls of the Cathedral started only after 1974. And a final restoration in which the Church was able to largely regain the original appearance, was completed in 2000-х. Stone walls coated with a protective mixture, made drainages and created the necessary microclimate inside the Cathedral. Now Demetrius Cathedral is included in the List of world cultural heritage by UNESCO.

Here it is, St. Demetrius Cathedral, in all its glory!







As this Cathedral was built on the territory of the princely court and was intended only for the princely family, its dimensions are small, but impressive by the rich decor of its facade @- it is possible to count more than 600 relief images of animals, plants, mythical beings, saints. Moreover, many of the reliefs preserved in its original form, the same that was lost, restored.

the facades of the temple consists of three tiers. On the lower tier, the decor is almost nonexistent, carvings decorated only portals.


Demetrius Cathedral, 1911.


the Western facade.

This is because before the temple on three sides was surrounded with a gallery connecting it with the house. It ends with both sides towers. Gallery, unfortunately, has not survived, but the wall remained smooth bottom.

the Adornment of the middle layer is the zone-колоннада with rich ornamentation of carved figures.







the Upper layer having narrow Windows, entirely speckled with thread.



Decorated with carvings and a drum on which is mounted a gilded dome with openwork gilded cross.


the cross on the top of the dome (copy).


the Cross (a real) is stored inside the Cathedral.

the white stone In the decoration of the Cathedral there are many motifs that were widespread in Byzantium, the Balkans, and throughout Europe. Therefore, scientists suggest that along with the Russian masters-резчиками over stone carvings worked and immigrants from the Balkan Peninsula – Bulgarians, Serbs, Dalmatians.

However, the creators of the delightful white stone carving of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral is still not fully understood, the interpretation of many songs and stories is a matter of dispute not one generation of scientists.

Some elements of the carved ornamental pattern.

Central to the design of the Cathedral is allotted to the biblical king and prophet David. His image can be seen on three facades of the temple. The quality of these images is gorgeous, apparently, doing their one of the best stone cutters. At first historians believed, that Christ, after a long time choosing between David and Solomon. And only after restorers found near this image the words" GIVING", the debate on this issue ended.


King David.


King David.

the Facade is dotted with images of animals, birds, plants. The abundance of plants used to create the image of the garden of Eden.




Angels.

Many of the animals are symbols of power @- lions, eagles, leopards. As for the strange monsters – beasts with two heads, pauseback, panoptic and the like – these images are familiar to us from Russian mythology and fairy tales, so they do not scare, but just to give a fabulous character carved patterns.




Saints and princes.

On the zone-колоннаде middle layer, girded with a Cathedral that has three sides carved out of a whole gallery of figures of saints. Among them identified first Holy princes-мученики Boris and Gleb, depicted in princely hats, they hold in their hands crosses.


the Northern facade. In the centre of saints Boris and Gleb.

it includes all 12 of the apostles, the portraits of Peter and Paul no doubt @- signed.


the Northern facade. The apostles Peter (right) and Paul.


the South facade. Equestrian warrior saints Demetrius of Thessalonica (with a sword) and Procopius.


the Western facade. Equestrian warrior saints. Right — George of Cappadocia (the victorious).

Interesting two depicted on the facade composition.

The Ascension Of Alexander The Great.


Alexander the great ascension. South facade.

" Technology" ascension is depicted in the following way. Alexander sitting in a basket in hands, holding out as bait the little cubs. Two griffons tied to a basket, are drawn to the bait, and due to this, the basket rises. Despite the fact that Alexander the great @- character is pre-Christian in medieval Europe, this plot was used quite often.

Vsevolod with his sons?

On the North facade you can find the image of the man who sits holding a baby on your lap. On both sides it is surrounded by older children. Many historians believe that it depicts Vsevolod with his sons. He had many children, so he was nicknamed the Big Nest. Just do not understand why Vsevolod there is no beard.


Vsevolod III.



However, there is another version according to which there is no Vsevolod with his sons, and the biblical Joseph with his brothers.

the hypothesis concerning the color of the cathedrals.

We all tend to think that white stone churches, extant, was originally the same, namely white.

However, in the photographs of the XIX century, you can see different options of painting the facades of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral @-" белый ornament on a dark background" and" темный ornament on white background". White pattern on a dark background (this color existed in 1847-1883.):


View from the North-востока. I. F. Barshchevsky, 1883

And this is a dark ornament on a white background:


North facade, West half of the upper tier. Korenev, V. I.(?) 1883-1897.


South facade, West half of the upper tier. Korenev V. I. 1883-1897.


Vladimir. Dmitrievskii Cathedral, from the South-востока. Prokudin-Горский 1911

And in 2015 in Pereslavl-Залесском on the facade of the white-stone Spaso-Преображенского of the Cathedral were the remains of an ancient wall painting. On this basis, scientists have suggested that in ancient times this temple" был practically painted" Khokhloma"". It is possible that the other facades of white stone temples in ancient times were also decorated with paintings, and looked this beauty is about as:


Uspensky and Dmitrievsky cathedrals inside the Kremlin Vladimir at the end of the XII century. Restoration done Kudryavtsev Mikhail Petrovich (1938-1993).

Source
0_575e1_dfb69d23_L.gif (450x20, 6Kb)

Link to original
Размещено в Без категории
Просмотров 96 Комментарии 0
Всего комментариев 0

Комментарии

 






















Часовой пояс GMT +3, время: 09:14.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.3
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. Перевод: zCarot