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MYSTERY Quiet Flows the Don

Posted 30-07-2012 at 12:33 by Про искусство

In the history of literature, a lot of mysterious pages. One of these mysteries (akin to the mystery of Shakespeare), is the author of the novel "And Quiet Flows the Don."
recently at the Philological Faculty of St. Petersburg University, I bought the book "In Search of Lost's" written by the creative team. One of the chapters of this book is devoted to the unraveling of who actually wrote the novel "And Quiet Flows the Don."
now known following the most likely contenders for the authorship of the novel "And Quiet Flows the Don ': Mikhail Sholokhov, Fyodor Kryukov, Sergei Goloushev.
Who are the true author?
Or epic novel is the product of several writers?
But perhaps the true author of someone else, hiding behind Mikhail Sholokhov?

Mikhail Sholokhov
Sholohov_1


In 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov won the Nobel Prize for his novel" And Quiet Flows the Don "with the wording" for the artistic power and integrity of the epic of the Don Cossacks at a crucial time for Russia. "
Someone said - for plagiarism!

According to the official, Mikhail Sholokhov was born 11 (24) in May 1905 in the village Kruzhilin Veshenskaia Donetsk District Don Army Region (now Sholokhov district of the Rostov region).
His father - Alexander M. Sholokhov - came from Ryazan province, sowed grain on leased land Cossack, was a clerk, manager of the steam mill.
writer's mother - Anastasia Danilovna Chernikov - the daughter of a serf, who came to the Don from Chernigov.

Sholokhov WITH PARENTS
Sholokhov with parents

As a child, he studied at Sholokhov first men's parish school farm Kargin, and then when he started having problems with his eyes and his father took him to Moscow for treatment - in the preparatory class of the Moscow Gymnasium. G. Shelaputin. Then there were Bogucharsky Veshenskaya and gymnasium. As a result, Sholokhov managed to finish only four classes.

In 1920-1922 Michael was involved in the elimination of illiteracy among adult farmers, conducted the census, he served in the Revolutionary Committee stanitsa, worked as an elementary school teacher, clerk of the procurement office. For excessive ryanost while the surplus was sentenced to death, and red. The shooting was replaced by a suspended sentence of punishment - the tribunal took into account its infancy.

In October 1922 Sholokhov moved to Moscow to continue their education and try your hand in the writer's work. However, to enter the technical school failed because of lack of work experience for admission and directions League. In order to somehow feed themselves, Michael worked as a loader, a laborer, a bricklayer. He was engaged in self-education, participated in the literary group "Young Guard", attended the training sessions, which were V.B.Shklovsky, O.M.Brik, N.N.Aseev. He joined the Young Communist League.

In 1923 the newspaper "Youth Truth" was first published satires Mikhail Sholokhov, and in 1924 in the same newspaper - his first story "The Birthmark." Later came collections of "The Don Stories" and "Azure Steppe."

As a child, on me were impressed by the movie "Nahalenok" and the film "Don story" based on "The Don Stories" by Mikhail Sholokhov. Once I even bought the book. Four-part film by Sergei Gerasimov's "Quiet Flows the Don", I watched a few times. And of course, Sergei Bondarchuk's film "The destiny of man."

Sholokhov - the fate of man

novel" And Quiet Flows the Don, "we did not learn in school. But studying the novel "Virgin Soil Upturned." But the strong impression he made on me.
From the military works of the most famous story "The Destiny of Man" (1956) and did not finish the novel, "They fought for their country."

brought world renown Sholokhov novel "And Quiet Flows the Don" - the Don Cossacks during the First World War and the Civil Wars.
Originally criticism of Communist criticism was that the main character - Gregory Melekhov - in the end does not come in red, and returns home. Glavlit censors got rid of the description of the Bolshevik terror against the Cossacks, and was removed from the text of any mention of Leon Trotsky.
Roman received brilliant reviews from the leading lights of Soviet literature Serafimovich and Gorky.
Such a controversial novel was read by Stalin personally and approved them for publication.
book praised as the Soviet and foreign reading public. Even in a White emigre press novel was very well received. English translation appeared in 1934.

«Quiet Flows the Don" - epic novel in four volumes. 03.01 Tom wrote from 1926 to 1928. Published in abridged form, and censorship by editing the journal "October" in 1927-1930. Volume 4 is completed in 1940, published in the "Roman-Gazeta" in 1940.

FIRST publication of the novel "The Quiet Don"
Sholohov_2

Immediately after the release of the novel, there were question, how could a young man (22 years) to create such a big product in such a short period of time - the first two volumes of 2.5 years.
Sholokhov graduated from high school only four classes, few lived on the Don, he describes the events of the First World War and the Civil War was still a child. In the novel "And Quiet Flows the Don" not less than 982 characters, 363 of them are real historical figures.
An early collection of "The Don Stories" by Mikhail Sholokhov did not demonstrate a level of artistic skill, which breathes "Quiet Flows the Don."

said that Sholokhov, apparently, was found the manuscript of an unknown white Cossack and processed in the now well-known text. The manuscript may have been "wet" and was not exactly a Bolshevik censorship.

Following the publication of "Quiet Flows the Don", commonly known in the 20-30s writer Teoctist Berezovsky said: "I am an old writer, but such books as" Silent Don "could not write ... Is it possible to believe that in 23 years, having no education, people could write such a deep, psychologically, a true book ... Something is wrong! »

Opponents responded that if Sholokhov spent much time in the archives, frequent contact with people who later became a prototype of the novel's characters. The prototype was a colleague of Gregory's father Melekhova Sholokhov Harlampi Ermakov, one of those who stood at the head of Veshenskaya rebellion, and he spent much time with a future writer, talking about himself and about how he had seen.

There was a rumor, though Sholokhov awarded the manuscript of an unknown white bags field officer, who was shot by the Bolsheviks, and published under his name.
They also talked about anonymous calls to the publisher with the emergence of some old woman's threats, demanding restoration of the authorship of her dead son.

But the main question was as follows: why young Sholokhov, apparently greeted the Bolshevik regime, did not write about the "red" and the "White»?

Chief Editor of "October "Alexander Serafimovich, who wrote the foreword to the novel" And Quiet Flows the Don ", explained the rumors envy prosperous Soviet writers to unexpected glory 22-year-old genius. "There were envious - began shouting that he was someone stole the manuscript. This vile slander gossip literally crawled across the Union. That's because the dogs! »

In 1929 on the orders of Joseph Stalin was asked to look into this matter. Under the auspices and at the initiative of Lenin's sister Maria Ulyanova Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP) has organized a special commission chaired by Serafimovich.
Sholokhov, presented the commission manuscripts, drafts and sketches of what he had written at that time.
At the end of March 1929 "Pravda" published a letter on behalf of the RAPP, in which the charges against Sholokhov, were dismissed as malicious slander.
In the future, important physical evidence - draft manuscript of the novel - ostensibly lost. Sholokhov 1947 announced the manuscript of the novel finally dead.

But the manuscript, as you know, "do not burn." In 1999, they were suddenly discovered, in the most unexpected place. It turned out Sholokhov "forgot" (?), Which left the manuscript to be deposited with his friend, writer Vasily Kudasheva villagers, who later died in German captivity. The manuscript was kept from the widow of Kudasheva, but from some reasons, has always denied its existence, arguing that the manuscript was lost during moving. Only after her death, when all the property transferred to heirs, the manuscript was to find and buy, which allowed for examination of authorship.

plagiarism rumors intensified after the publication in 1930 of the collection the memory of Leonid Andreyev, which was a letter to Sergey Andreev criticism Goloushev, dated September 3, 1917. In this letter, Andreev mentioned "Quiet Flows the Don" Goloushev, which then became the first challenger for the title of the true author. Only in 1977 it became clear that it was in the letter was just about travel notes entitled "On the Quiet Flows the Don", published in a Moscow newspaper.

Sholokhov, this fact was known. He wrote Serafimovich: "I received several letters from children from Moscow and from readers who ask me that and put on notice that once again there are rumors that I stole the" Quiet Flows the Don "the critic Goloushev - a friend of Leonid Andreyev - and if there is compelling evidence that the book requiem memory Andreeva, composed of his relatives ».

in 1937-1938. unfolded a new campaign of attacks. According to the Cossack writer D.Petrova-Biryuk, he personally and in Rostov newspaper "The Hammer" in Rostov oblast party committee began to receive letters from the Cossacks, with new accusations Sholokhov of plagiarism. In some of these letters stated that the real author of "Quiet Flows the Don" was a famous writer, a Cossack, a member of the White movement Fyodor Kryukov , who died in 1920 of typhus.

In 1974 in Paris, a book was published by Irina Medvedeva-Tomashevska "Stirrup Quiet Flows the Don." In the preface, Alexander Solzhenitsyn openly accused Sholokhov of plagiarism. "23-year-old debutant created work on the material, far surpassing his experience and his level of education (4 class). prodkomissar Young, then a laborer and clerk in Moscow on Red Presnya house management, published a work which could only be prepared by long conversations with many layers of pre-revolutionary society of the Don ... »

In 1970 the Norwegian mathematician, Slavic, and Geir Hetso conducted a computer analysis of texts of indisputable Sholokhov, on the one hand, and" Quiet Flows the Don ", on the other, and came to the conclusion that the authorship of Sholokhov. < br />
The main argument of defenders of the authorship of Sholokhov was a draft manuscript of the novel "And Quiet Flows the Don", which allegedly was lost. But in 1999, after years of searching for the Institute of World Literature. Gorky was able to find the RAS were considered lost manuscripts of the 1st and 2nd book "Quiet Flows the Don" - those who presented with Sholokhov in 1929, the Commission PPAR.
In 885 pages of manuscript. Of these, 605 were written by hand MA Sholokhov, 280 pages of transcribed Anew hand of the writer's wife and her sisters, and many of these pages also contain editing MA Sholokhov.
According to the results of three examinations - handwriting, textual and identity - the authorship of the novel was finally confirmed at Sholokhov.

But critics Sholokhov found in the draft of the novel series of errors that can be treated as an error when copying from the original manuscript, performed by another person. "Scepter of colors" instead of "The spectrum of colors," "Castle" instead of "Winter" (palace), "The area "instead of" half a horse "(that is, half a length ahead of the horse).
Some of the fixes is difficult to interpret as an attempt to analyze someone else's handwriting, for example:" The House "- written, crossed out, corrected to" the Don " . "Aksinya smiles again, through clenched teeth" - written, crossed out, corrected to "Aksinya smiles sternly, without opening his mouth».

researcher Zeev Bar-Sella suggested that it is not original and a copy of the illiterate a competent source, performed in addition to pre-revolutionary orthography. This manuscript was written by Sholokhov and his family after the publication of the novel specifically for submission to the Commission, as the original, which was done with the magazines, it does not fit (perhaps because had obvious signs of someone else's authorship).

manuscript of the novel "The Quiet Don"
Sholokhov - the manuscript of The Quiet Don

The found "drafts" fully confirmed the opinion of Academician MP Alekseev, who communicated with at Sholokhov Presidium of the USSR: "Nothing Sholokhov could not write anything!»
However, it was clear 80 years ago. physicist Nikita A. Tolstoy recalled that his father, AN Tolstoy fled from Moscow, When he was asked to lead the very commission of plagiarism. At home, the question "Who wrote all of" Quiet Flows the Don? "replied one," Well, of course, not Bear! »

Back in 1928 when in the journal "October" were first chapter, "The Quiet Don" voices "But it's Fedor Dmitrievich Kryukov wrote!»

FEDOR KRYUKOV
Sholohov_Kryukov

Fedor Dmitrievich Kryukov was born on 2 ( 14) in February 1870 in the village of Ust-Glazunovskaja Medveditsa District Don Army Region. He is the son Cossack farmer. Mother - Don noblewoman.
finished with a silver medal Ust-Medveditsa school. In 1892 graduated the St. Petersburg Institute of History and Philology, thirteen years he taught at the Eagle and Nizhny Novgorod. In 1906 he was elected deputy from the Don to the First State Duma.
At 1909 m sitting in the "Cross" for the signature on the "Vyborg Appeal" - a call for civil disobedience (when the king dissolved the Duma).
In the First World War nurse Hooks went voluntarily. in 1918 sided with the whites. But in the first battle horse under him was killed, and Theodore concussion.
In the spring of 1919 during the retreat with the White Army to Novorossiysk, Hooks died. According to some data, from typhoid fever in one of the Kuban Cossack villages, on the other, was captured and shot red.

F.D.Kryukov author of numerous essays, short stories and stories about the life of the Don Cossacks. According to contemporaries, Hooks was a connoisseur, a lover and performer of the Cossack songs. In "Quiet Don" there are dozens of Cossack songs, as in parts of the epigraphs to the novel, and actually in the text.
The texts of the same Sholokhov Cossack songs are practically absent.

Mikhail Sholokhov could not know the art well-known writer and countryman Don Fyodor Kryukov. Even some defenders of Sholokhov admit that he "used as a vital literary material essays F. Kryukov" .
So strange is persistent denial of Sholokhov his acquaintance with the works of Kryukov. But one day he blurted it out.

at the XVIII Congress of the CPSU (B) in March 1939 Sholokhov said:
«In the Red Army, under the red banners covered with glory, will hit the enemy like no one has ever beaten him not, and I assure you, fellow delegates, that field will not throw the bags - we need this Japanese custom, well ... not to face. Strangers will collect bags ... because in our literary household contents of these bags come in handy later. After defeating enemies, we'll write a book about how we beat these enemies. These books will serve our people and will remain so for the edification of the hijackers, who happens to be of wounded ... »

That bag was lying in a field manuscript Fyodor Kryukov, Sholokhov did not mention.
How to hit Sholokhov novel Kryukov?

In 1975 in Paris Roy Medvedev's book, "Who wrote" Quiet Flows the Don. "Medvedev believes that the best in all aspects of the 1st volume of" Quiet Flows the Don "was created before 1920 and almost fell in the final form of the young Sholokhov.
Medvedev calls attention the fact that the father-in Sholokhov P.Gromoslavsky in 1918-1919. participated in the White Cossack movement in Novocherkassk and was one of the staff of the newspaper "The Don statements," which was edited while Fyodor Kryukov. According to existing evidence, during the retreat in 1919 Don Army, helped Gromoslavskij Kryukov, and after his death, a group of Cossacks buried him near the village of Novokorsunskoy. Medvedev suggests that it is part of the manuscript went to Gromoslavskij F.Kryukova.

According to Medvedev, " Quiet Flows the Don "contains 50 or 60 the characteristic features of the author's biography, but only 5 or 6 of them can be attributed to Sholokhov. While Kryukov, the author of numerous short stories, essays and essays on the Don Cossacks, can be attributed, at least 40

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